Week 2 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy
Week 2 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dorsey on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy at University of Indianapolis taught by Justin Maiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Principles of human anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
BIO 103 Principles of Human Anatomy Notes for 09 September 2015 Introduction to the Skeletal System Skeleton Supporting framework Made up of that continuously rebuilds and remodels itself Interacts with every other organ system A lot of extracellular matrix Osseous bone Connective Tissue A Quick Review of Roots refers to bone 0 refers to cartilage Things you should be able to do by the end this section of these notes LList the Structures of the skeletal System LCompare and contrast compact and spongy bone 3 Identify the types and locations of cartilage within the skeletal system What makes up the Skeletal Svstem Bones Cartilage Ligaments Other Connective Tissue Bone Primary organ of the skeletal system 0 Provides a ridged framework of the body 0 Two types of bone 0 Also referred to as dense lamelar or cortical bone Relatively dense connective tissue Appears white smooth and solid Accounts for o Also referred to as cancelous or trabecuar bone Inside of the compact bone Appears porous 20 bone mass On the ends of the bones Cartilage o Semirigid connective tissue 0 More exible than bone 0 Bones are all hyaline cartilage when they rst develop in the fetus and then mineralize and harden as they mature o Acts as a quotmodelquot for bone formation 0 Two types 0 Attaches ribs to sternum Found within growth plates Covers ends of bone at articular surfaces skeletal formations that make direct contact with other skeletal structures and forms a synovial joint Withstands large amounts of pressure without compressing Locating in the intervertebral discs pubic symphysis located between ossa coxae pelvic bones and cartilage pads of the knees o D anchor bone to bone 0 D connect muscle to bone Things you should be able to do by the end of this section Describe the general functions of bone Describe the four major classes of bones as determined by shape Explain the structural components of a long bone Compare the gross anatomy of other bones to that of a long bone Explain the general function of blood vessels and nerves that serve a bone Compare the structure of compact and spongy bone mmewwe Functions of Bone O 0 Structural support and framework 0 Protects delicate tissues rib cage D heart and lungs cranial bones D brain vertebrae D spinal cord pelvis l urinary and reproductive organs and terminal end of GI tract 0 Bones are attachment sites for skeletal muscles soft tissues and some organs 0 Creates a system of levers D muscle contractions pulling on skeleton o Alters direction and magnitude of forces generated by muscles 0 Makes blood red blood cells and platelets are made speci cally in the red marrow 0 and reserves Released from bones on an as needed basis Calcium D muscle contraction blood clotting and nerve impulse transmission Phosphate ATP utilization and in the plasma membrane FYI is super important in physiology 0 Lipids in yellow bone marrow Classifying Bones Fourtypes 0 Long bone 0 Short bones 0 Flat bones o Irregular bones o diaphysis l long cylindrical part of the bone 0 Long and narrow Marrow in the middle of the bone Limb bones Spongy bone on the ends No shaft Short and squat A little bit of spongy bone in the middle Examples carpal bones wrists tarsas foot bones sesamoid bones along tendons of some muscles patellakneecap Muscle attachment site Slightly curved NO meduary cavity Protects soft tissues Examples skull scapulae sternum ribs 0 Pieces and parts of multiple categories elaborate and complex shapes 0 Examples vertebrae hip bones some bones in the skull ethmoid sphenoid sutura ossices Gross Anatomy of Long Bones Shaft Provides leveragelength Compact bone Center of the shaft Contains marrow Red in children and yellow in adults 0 0 o Knob on the end of the bone Proxima and distal epiphysis o Grows separately from rest of the long bone in children Aows for the growth plate to add length as the child ages 0 Outer later is compact bone 0 Inner layer is spongy bone 0 On joint surfaces Absorbs shock and reduces friction Heps with movement 0 Region between epiphysis and diaphysis 0 Growth Plate Thin layer of hyaline cartilage Allows for growth and added length of long bones before it mineralizes as the bones mature Adults have a epiphyseal line which is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate Coverings and Linings of the Bone o Tough outer surface of bone 0 Outer brous layer Dense irregular connective tissue Anchors blood vessels and nerves to bone surface Attachment site for ligaments and tendons 0 Inner cellular level includes osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts and osteoclasts 0 Attached to bone by collagen bers 0 Helps the bone grow and heal o Endosteum 0 Internal surface within medullary cavity 0 Has osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts and osteoclasts Gross Anatomv of Other Bone Classes Short at and irregular bones differ from long bones Outside D compact bone lnside D spongy bone 39 D spongy bone in skull NO medullary cavity Blood Supply and Innervation of Bone O 0 Highly vascularized in regions of spongy bone 0 Vessels enter from periosteum o l small opening or hole in the bone where an artery enters and a vein exits 0 With blood vessels going through the foramen o lnnervate bone periosteum endosteum and marrow cavity 0 Mainly sensory nerves feel pain Bone Marrow Two types red and yellow myeloid tissue 0 Hemopoietic D forms blood cells 0 Made up of reticular connective tissues immature blood cells and fat 0 In children located in spongy bone and medullary cavity of long bones o In adults located in select parts of axial skeleton skull vertebrae sternum ossa coxae proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur 0 Product of red bone marrow degeneration as children mature 0 Fatty but not the exact same as adipose 0 Can convert back to red bone marrow in extreme cases during extreme anemia to facilitate production of additional erythrocytes red blood cells Cells of Bone good to know o D derived from mesenchyme cells specializes and turns into an osteoblast l building all work done within bones cuboidal trapped in the matrix differentiate into osteocytes produces osteoid D embedded in bone and maintain the extracellular matrix detect mechanical stress on bone 0 l destruction of bone to free up the minerals within derived from fused bone marrow cells Looking at Pictures of Bone Dark spots D cells and outside of the spots is extracellular matrix Organic and Inorganic Components of Bone Organic 0 Helps with exibility and compliancy o Collagen protein 0 Inorganic o Sturdy and rigid 0 Two main ones are calcium and phosphate Forms the other inorganic salts and crystals that are found around collagen bers 0 Correct proportions are CRUCIAL 0 Too little protein l brittle bones 0 Too little calcium D soft bones Compact Bone Structure 0 Haversian Systems D cylindrical structuresbasic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone o Haversian Canalj Cylindrical channel at center of osteon Blood vessels and nerves go through channel 0 Lamellae D means quotlayersquot Canaliculi Italian for quotlittle canalsquot Rings of bone that surround central canal Collagen bers give bone strength and resilience o D mature bone cells found in small spaces between concentric lamellae Maintains bone matrix Living cells around dark spots lacunae o Italian for quotlittle canalsquot Tiny interconnecting channels that extend from each lacuna travel through lamellae and connect lacunae to the central canal Houses osteocytes projections Allows movement of nutrients minerals gases and wastes between blood vessels and osteocytes Structure in long bone but not part of an osteon o Volkmann canals Perpendicular to central canals to allow for horizontal transfer and helps move blood laterally Not really going to be asked about the structure of trabeculae spongy bone Ossi cation osteooenesis Mentioned earlier in passing now you have the name of the process 0 Formation and development of bone connective tissue Begins in the embryo and continues through childhood and adolescence The shaft in the long bones starts to mineralize and harden rst and the process moves out from there 0 Side note cartilage does not have calcium so that it does not calcifymineralize and become hard and stiff Appositional Bone Growth 0 Bone is deposited by osteoblasts and the older bone is reabsorbed by osteoclasts 0 Makes bones larger but does not increase mass 0 Same thickness of bone medullary cavity gets larger Bone Disorders Achondroplasia o Abnormal premature conversion of hyaline cartilage to bone 0 Causes achondroplastic dwar sm Short in stature but large head Rickets 0 Vitamin D de ciency in childhood o De cient calci cation of osteoid tissue 0 Bones become soft and deform o Basically large cartilage bones Study Questions Find a study partner and explainteach the concepts to them In what three locations of the body do you nd fibrocartilage Compare and contrast spongy bone and compact bone Calcium is one of the minerals stored and released from bone What are some of its functions within the body What type of bones have a length nearly equal to their width What portion of bone contains the epiphyseal plate What is the function of the epiphyseal plate What is the process of blood cell formation called Describe the gross anatomy of a long bone Name several functions of bone 10What is the function of an osteoblast An osteoclast 11What organic substances compose bone matrix 12What inorganic substances UJNl 39 wm ewe
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