AIP NOTES PSC 2482
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nangesian Lekilit Waters on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2482 at George Washington University taught by Throup, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see African International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
WEEK TWO THE US AND SOVIET UNION The US and others looked at Africa and saw they were becoming more like them African society was becoming more individual individual thinkers producers consumers etc Islam and Christianity were replacing African religions The Soviet Union looked at Africa and saw that it looked more like them African traditions and communal values were still very strong and so Soviet specialists saw a society that was pre capitalist Soviets speculated that it was a feudal society they thought it could be possible for Africa to advance from feudal to socialist mode of production and avoid capitalism Soviets and Americans looked at Africa and saw what they wanted Looked at it and saw changes in African ethnic identitiestribes were being transformed into a national community Late 1950s US and Soviet were optimistic over African society Walter Rostow work in 1940s and 1950s were concerned with Brit industrial revolution 1960 wrote a book quotStages of Economic Growth A Non Communist Manifestorquot 1 thing crucial to industrialization the level of investment he suggested an 8 growth rate World Bank39s focus was to recapitalize and reconstruct post world war stricken nations it was only in 1940s when the bank thought of exploring elsewhere first place was Columbia the ideas that the Columbian government suggested were more of a blue print to what followed Harrod Dohmer American economist more concerned with what will happen when wartime demand comes to an end in order to sustain the economy Rostow using Dohmer and other economics came up with ideas Rule Brit indirect rule based on what they saw as the traditional african structure example Sokoto in Northern Nigeria Fulani traders begun coming into the region became more important in Hausa city states Fulani came together under the leadership of Uthman Dan Fodio the society was highly successful prior to colonialism the more centralized the state was the easier it was for it to come down but if there were small city states it took longer to be destroyed Brits ruled N Nigeria thru the Sokoto after they had taken it over and put some of their leaders there Administrative structure remained unchanged thru out Brit rule they ruled on the basis of the Sharia because the Sokoto were Muslim Brit administrators rule thru the African rules they pretty much told the leaders what to do French had a different way of ruling from the Britsdirect rule however there wasn39t too much of a difference Brits treated each of the colonies as a separate entity Links between African nations to other African nations was very very itt Felix Houphouet Boigny educated son of a chief RDA leader 1st president of Cote d39lvoire marketed cocoa 19491950 Felix was feeling the pinch as colonial administration was making it difficult for his political party he goes to see a french minister and they made a deal he bargained that he would take the votes from the communist party to socialistthe minister39s Felix eventually becomes the French minister of health in mid 1950s and got to seat in the french cabinet this was unlike normal running of African governments which never functioned outside africa French African politicians had a different ways of dealing with african politics than the rest the relationship between africa and france grows close until 1993 French had begun to back off even before Felix French regions in Africa French West Africa and Equatorial Africa were made into their own political entities and introduced greater power to local governors and assemblies French Africa started to later on look a bit more like British politics OPTIONS leave things as they arenot the right answer that Gaul wanted Developed greater autonomy and reamin members of the French econ ndependenceDe Gaul didn39t want this everyone ended up voting for 2 except for Guinea Guinea voted and got immediate independence and De Gaul wanted revenge NO SUPPORT FROM FRANCE everything that was from France was taken away Soviet union saw this as an opportunity to break into Guinea and manipulate tensions in the continent and stimulate relationship with Guinea offered Guinea 35 million dollars most of the trade in Guinea becomes between the Soviet Union Ghana Marxist influence gradually grows in Ghana Ghana has A LOT of bauxite which is used to create aluminum Independent gov of Ghana and Brits want to take money from cocoa to finance state industrialization in the construction of a dam which they could use the electricity for bauxite Brits Soviet Union US are all thinking this is a good idea and want to finance the dam early i960s demonstrated that african nations were more skillful of playing off the US and Soviet Somalia Ethiopia Soviet Union was trying to make advances in africa it sometimes tried to court the most improbable political allies in 1959 emperor of Ethiopia in order to get more from US went to Moscow Moscow agreed to train troops construct oil refineries new tech institute emperor wasnt that serious out of this all what they got in the US was that the US will support Somalia in war between Somalia Ethiopians never took soviet offer seriously by the time the emperor died they had spent less than 12 of it Somalia also did the same there was bargaining that the African governments played well Kenya Mau Mau movement civil war among the kikuyu between emerging elite and poorer sections of the community acute tension among the haves and have nots in the Kikuyu reinforced by those who were becoming christians and those who wanted to stay in traditional kikuyu ways Brits fought the Mau Mau not only militarily but economically 1 in 3 every adult male Kikuyu was in detention and many were executed about 1011000 Brits pushed thru land reforms issuing titles for consolidated blocks of territories and stripped those against them of any rights this transformed Kikuyu society and laid foundation for Kenya39s economic development central kenyan society was profoundly divided in 1950s Kenyatta Brits didn39t trust because he was educated and involved in many things saw him as a terrorist was an intellectual and Brits saw him as sophisticated trained and so they put him in detention 19521961 reconsolidating the Kikuyu identity by healing the woulds that happened in the civil war Later soviet Union moves in to manipulate the cleavages in kenyan society 1st plan was to heal division in kikuyu society KADU Kenyan African Democratic Union represented the small underdeveloped parts of kenya it was willing to accept financial support from colonial businesses relatively pro capitalist KANU Kenyan African National Union more left wing grew support form big ethnic groupskikuyu luo a considerable element within it supported a socialist development model rapid Africanization of businesses as well when he got out ofjail Kenyatta wanted to bring the twO together that didn39t work and he ended up as leader of KANU Tom Mboya leader of trade union movement Luo but a moderate thinker the US helped him and saw him as a rising political star in africa he very much became a client of the american trade union movement with financial support from the US he was able to bring Kenyan students to the US for studies the faction was pro american and saw the role of international investment in kenya didn39t want a rapid africanization of the civil service Jaramogi Oginga Odinga political opponent of Mob if Mboya looked to the US Odinga looked up to the soviet union he did the same as Mboya by sending ltenyan students to SU for studies there was a division and Kenyatta tried to moderate it December 1964 KADU decides there39s no point in being in opposition Kenya becomes a republic by voluntary liquidation of the opposition this strengthened KANU and weekend Oginga who was vice president in the single party there was a battle if ltenya would stay as an African socialist country and rely on the state or rely on foreign investment and private capital and stay in the capitalistic world Lumumba Institutes training centers for KANU institutes by Mboya Kenyatta gets nervous about the school because he thought Marxist Leninism was being taught In 1965 Oginga challenge to Kenyatta end culmination happens in 1966 1966 national party conference called by Kenyatta and it restructures KANU Instead of nation wide party president and vice president Kenyatta says there will be 8 vice presidents that will be acting as heads of the 8 provinces KPU Oginga resigns after what Kenyatta does and creates KPUKenyan People39s Union KPU is a socialist party There are 150 members in the parliament 60 joined Oginga and 90 stayed in KANU Kenyatta saw this as a threat and rushed a legislation that if one switches a party they have to go thru reelection 30 of the 60 decide to stick with KANU general elections take place in 1966 and only 10 get back 8 were Luo due to manipulation by Kenyatta 10 people in a party weren39t really recognized by parliament Kenyatta goes to Nyanza to open a school that was built thru society funding Kenyatta39s speech basically denunciates KPU and Oginga the crowd goes crazy and attempts to kill Kenyatta Kenyatta later on bans the Lumumba institute KPU and all the party leaders are put into detention Farms are curved up and given to people to run state borrows money from world bank for the program Congo at the time Belgium Congo was considered as the model in the african continent economically etc Education systems in colonial Africa French fairly restrictive but not much wastage there was a level of opportunity all the way to uni in france British much wider if you were 5 or 6 you probably went to school Education in Brit colonies was provided by missionaries or african parents or African institutions not by the state state monitored the quality and oversaw very few went to secondary education Belgian almost everyone went to school until age 11 if you wanted to be a priest you had the opportunity to go to university the primary education was the best Baltongowestpeople of Congo lived along the boarder with Angola dn French Congo the Baltongo were part of the Abalto party led by J Kasavubu On the other side to the East was the Katanga people The Katanga39s party was Chanultah led by Tshombe Another group to the North East were others led by Patrick Lumumba and to the south there was another group present were 100000 whites during independence Lumumba and Kasavubu make a deal Lumumba becomes the head and the others are left without political power there was growing discontent among the african soldiers soldiers saw politicians doing better economically but the military there39s no change army went on a rampage killing people because they are displeased Katanga secedes because the party isnt being accepted Lumumba is upset and goes into US asking for assistance Eisenhower administration isn39t impressed by him they see him as a radical so they send him to the UN goes to the UN asking for troops to put down the secessionist movement UN released the troops but what they do isnt what Lumumba wanted the troops went to a chapter 6 peace keeping operation the troops treat them as equals Lumumba was not happy about this and starts talking about getting soviet union help this move doesnt go well with the US UN and by 21st of august theres a national security council meeting in which Eisenhower suggests the death of Lumumba around the same time Secretary general in UN says let39s get rid of Lumumba as aleader Kasavubu dismisses Lumumba as president there39s a deadlock before military coup orchestrated by CIA and Lumumba was put into house arrest dec 1960 Lumumba stays there for a month and decides to get back to ltitangani on his way there he makes speeches and word spreads that he39s running away he eventually was caught by congolese army beaten and taken to Kinshasa they decide they dont want to keep him in jail or kill him he39s given to Katanga whereby he39s killed