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Lecture 1&2

by: Cecilia Moog

Lecture 1&2 Microbio 303

Cecilia Moog
Biology of Microorganisms
Dr. Kurtz

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About this Document

Summary notes from the first week of class with a focus on terms and concepts
Biology of Microorganisms
Dr. Kurtz
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Moog on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Microbio 303 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Kurtz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology of Microorganisms in Microbiology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
Microbiology 303 Lecture 1amp2 Microbes Exist as single cells have a DNA genome that the replicate 110um 1x1030 microorganisms on planet Viruses are called microbes however it s debatable as to whether or not they are alive Critical for biology and geochemistry Have unique metabolic processes that play into carbonnitrogen cycles Effect weather cloud formation soil water Most areas of the human body have been colonized by microbes there are 10x microbial cells compared to human cells onin the body leading to many beneficial relationships Pre 1900 infectious microbes were the number one cause of death in humans malariasmallpox Today 25 of deaths are linked to microbes however it is thought that chronic diseases are rooted in microbes Critical to agriculture soil quality nutrients for plants however they also cause diseases in plants Used in biotechnology for bio remediation biodegradation genetic engineering biofuels production of chemicals enzymes food additives and pharmaceuticals Important for basic research in evolutiongenetics ect Light Microscopy used to see individual cells detail in larger cells Cheap and easy to use Electron Microscopy scanning and transmission with more details visible using transmission More costly Classification putting things in logical groups Ernst Haeckel 1860s classified organisms based on morphologyfeeding Wittaker 1950s created the idea of 5 kingdoms based on feeding and uni vs multicellular attributes Prokaryote lacks nucleus and membrane bound organelles excepts ribosomes Phylogenetic Classification based on evolutionary relationships discovered through gene sequencing with trees constructed based on rRNA sequence alignment Carl Woese 19282012 studied bacterial evolution and identified the universal molecular chronomenter for use in all living organisms and discovered the archaea domain rRNA is universal conserved large and not horizontally transferred Specifically the 16s subunit is used The idea of a last common community is used instead of last common ancestor because of horizontal gene transfer Bacteria most are single celled reproduce asexually have simple morphology and diverse metabolic processes Some are pathogens Firmicutes grampositive many disease causing species some endospore producers important in food productionbiotech gt Name means quottough skin found in the human body Proteobacteria gramnegative some pathogens related to mitochondria important for biotech Ecoi gt gt gt gt Hydrogen oxidizing bacteria hydrogen is electron donor oxygen is electron accepter some can fix carbon dioxide or nitrogen Bdellovibrio gramnegative predators of other gramnegative bacteria Actinobacteria grampositive filamentous growth some pathogens many useful for producing antibiotics Cyanobacteria gramnegative colonial may produce toxins originated oxygenic photosynthesis related to chloroplasts generate 02 also known as bluegreen algae Archea most single celled asexual reproduction metabolically diverse simple morphology none are pathogens molecularly similar to Eukarya Symbiotically associated with humans and termites Methanogens anaerobic produce methane Fungi Absorptive heterotrophs saprobes feed on dead organic matter spore reproduction


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