Week 2--Lectures 3-4
Week 2--Lectures 3-4 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Popular in Art History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Lecture 3 Ideology and Globalization in the Biblical Empires of the Ancient Near East Babylon Assyria Persia September 9 2015 3 later phases 1 Babylon a Old Babylonian Empire i Hammurabi 17921750 BCE known for his formation of the just society b NeoBabylonian Empire 612539 BCE 2 Assyrians 1000612 BCE a Defeated the Old Babylonian Empire and expanded their territory They are known for their palace reliefs 3 Persians Achaemenid Empire 559331 BCE a Brought the fall of the Assyrians and threatened the fall of the Greeks Themes 1 Propaganda for the Ruler takes form of representations of ruler as intermediary with the gods lawgiver and militaristic leader strength of the ruler in series of palace reliefs and fortified cities ranging from the Assyrian palace reliefs at Nimrud Kalhu and Nineveh to the great gateway of Babylon and the audience hall of Darius and Xerxes in 5th century BC PERSIA 2 Style reveals a high degree of illusionism in narrative details of military equipment the anatomy of wild animals combined with a formal hieratic mode of presentation value of craft and material 3 Development further of hierarchical city plans with sacred and royal precincts 4 Cultural appropriation as representation of multicultural empire a Persiansglobalization b Cultural mixing a Through imperial colonial mixing There is a sort of bias in the writing because the stories are all written by either a ruler or the winner The land of the Babylonians during the reign of Hammurabi Babylonia at the time of I Hammurabi o The heart red of the Babylonian empire was located further north than Ur Hammurabi helped expand the land to the darker tan The Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar x 1 7 gt t 7 439 i 39 quot h K l lJ JV Asufxmrk 396 M faquot J m l 1 Cum 1 39 1 a g 39 1 1 rquot 1390 r39 gt a i i g 739 39 e r N 2 as a 947quot 4mm f l 6 39 xxxw 2x 4 x AW KN b w mm l i i J 2n TWP11W i w l Kg 1 x Win 4 Wu H x i Fe Kywmfisl lmm 9v W qg39li39ngri g MM Km 4th miquot Mam 39 Ml gl elbow JV 7 quotall V I M N i gt i f a MEIR a v hl I IHgta 395 A My l 3 4 39 gt gfaroaz gt NW 39l r I l J HT Qrng 7399quotquot 7111 I I h 4 a VK quot ram 2139 lnhmmnrm VGbal m4 f c I H Iquot W39Damascm rquot pm A I 39 i I39 1 39 mo nu2 39 k I 1 C m I MW Irm am mmlfrn muwn i l SNquot 39 V 7 139 wmm Tm Ma a JIIIMH 0 b kmg E yonj rw my i 9 L1 The BABYLOHIAH EMPIRE and H10 deportation nl llquot lud dhilrs I himmaxim brmm Jul 6 39A quotit nadir w s1 as 7 Vmu 39ulu Id ulni hIffliyhvku Kmin 4 1151 lh lpr m MM 3 lu il 4 Eu14 ru39l u flw I39ml39nlu lm o Nebuchadnezzar expanded the empire even more to the Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea Stela with Code of Hammurabi o The text is very extensive and very densely written on the stela o The following is a translation of the prologue 0 quotWhen the sublime Anu the king of the gods and Enili the lord of the heavens and of earth had pronounced the revered name of Babylon and made it preeminent among the regions of the worldThen they designated my name Hammurabi so that I would make justice prevail in the country and would eliminate the evil and the perverse and would prevent the strong from oppressing the weak and they raised me like Shamash the Sun above all men to illuminated the country First among kings I am the powerful king the Sun of the city of Babylon which spreads the light over the countries of Sumer and Akkad the king who makes obedient the four regionsWhen Marduk ordered me to bring justice to the people established truth and justice wellbeing of the people 0 This is basically what the ruler Hammurabi thought of himself Claims on the Stela 0 He is the king of Babylon 0 He is a just king ruling in the place of the sun god Shamash The king is giving direct authority to the mortal Hammurabi The system ofjustice is different from ours quoteye for eye tooth for tooth quotprevent the strong from oppressing the weak I This is very important All classes are treated the same 0 O This picture from the top of the stela compliments the text Shamash is seated on a throne and larger than Hammurabi Examples of status for Shamash O O O O I assure the Hammurabi is standing and is smaller than the sun god Shamash Throne solar rays from the sun in the speech crown with horns long beard longer than Hammurabi objects ie septor rope measuring rod to plan cities The sun is very important Hammurabi is either in a temple or heaven 0 o The eye to eye contact or gaze empowers Hammurabi to be seen and in the presence of the god 0 The stela is proclaiming Hammurabi s role and godlike authority conography o quotSymbolic representation especially the conventional meanings attach images Site httpdictionaryreferencecombrowseiconography ed to an image or Image writing that relies on visual codes and symbols to distinguish who s who Babylon was short lived and rebuilt 1000 years later under Nebuchadnezzar II The book Daniel in the Bible gives an account of this time Daniel 530 describes the king and his new city this text can be found on the power point from lecture on learnUW Nebuchadnezzar II 0 He is known forfdestroying the Jews His van glory led to his demise 3 quotit l M o This reconstruction picture of Babel taken from finds of archaeologists shows another ziggurat This ziggurat is believed to be the Tower of Babel from the bible 0 Tower of Babel I The construction plans were found in the city plans found at the site I The people wanted to reach God so they tried to build a tower that would reach the heavens I Terracotta ceramic tiles 0 What is left of this city I Ishtar Gate I 1 if Hay 1 o Ishtar was the goddess of war love and fertility o This was the entrance to the city 0 Nebuchadnezzar was devoted to Ishtar o The gate has been rebuilt in a museum in Berlin The blue ile is up of ground cobalt The deep blue seen here has always been a rich color or a color symbolizing royalty The tiles are all rectangular and lined up perfectly 0 There are multiple animal reliefs found around the gate 0 Bulls o Dragons Marduk the sea god was the patron god of Babylon The myth states that he slayed the dragons of the deep This is part of the Babylonian creation myth The Assyrian Empire 744612 BCE Asher was a prefix for the rulers Nimrud was the capitol of the Assyrian empire 0 This is a reconstruction picture of the reliefs in the interior of the palace at Nimrud vb up 3 1 e I The inside of the palace was mudbrick The adornments were painted in alabaster or carved I There are three tiers to the walls This shows a hierarchy of religion 0 The top tier is of the king or priest like figures 0 The middle tier is the king on a chariot hunting ex lions o The bottom tier is of his military exploits Exploitation of military triumph is a means of intimidation Many reliefs and such had brutal images including but not limited to decapitations and the like o This is a relief of Elamite fugitives being persuaded by Assyrian archers on the banks of the Euphrates River 0 This scene conveys a sense of movement I The left bottom corner is in the forefront and the right top corner is the background I The trees get smaller I The perspective is not consistent The people in the fortress are not to scale The people are too big This is a visual code or representation of the city This is an example of an abstract ordering of beings The details of the bloated pig skins being used as life preservers for the Elamites is impressive This is like the grandfather to life jackets 0 You see the action of swimming OOOO quot Zv Q39 s ceremony or offering before the Tree of Life 0 The right is an image of a birdhuman hybrid There is another birdhuman hybrid in the image on the left but this one has a human head and just the wings of the bird 0 The figures are on a single plan facing as if they were walking left to right 0 These were made by the same artist that created the relief above This shows that the same artist can work in different modes This shows a lot of talent Sargon II Khorsabad the palace complex 0 There is a pattern here 0 The palace and religious places are grouped together to distinguish a distinction between commoners o The space gets more sacred going inwards and upwards 0 There is a mixture of sacred and royal in the ziggurat structure here l o The figures shown in these images are called Lamassu These were the guardians of the city 0 They were a representation of sacred royal and the supernatural Nineveh o This was the heart of the Assyrian empire 0000 They were door posts into the main palace complex They weighed over 1 ton each and were carved from a single block They were made to be impressive Features of the Lamassu I Bull like body human head with long beard horned crown crown on top of the horned crown wings 4 legs as seen on the side but two seen in the front resulting in 5 total legs Each side should be seen independently The Lamassu doesn t have 5 legs it s just how it was created This image shows the king demonstrating a prowess as a hunter Being king of the beasts had an association with being king of the world His bow is poised to shoot the arrow While he is pulling it back with his left arm the arrow is shown behind his head instead of in front They didn t want to obstruct the king s face in anyway so they defied logic and put it behind his head There is overlapping in this image The king is in the foreground and he is unobstructed and larger than the other figures in this image The king s costume is very detailed along with the wheels and the horses Each and every lion has a lot of detail as well This was not quotfair game I The lions were probably kept in a cage until it was time for the hunt They were cornered and basically had no chance whatsoever This was designed to make the king look good As you can see the servants in the chariot with the king are protecting his back and injuring the lions so that the king can easily shoot them with his bow and arrow I For closer details see power point slides 18 and 19 The Achaemenian Empire o The focus was in present Persia o Cyrus expanded the territory going as far as to threaten the collapse of the Greeks o Darius I led the Greeks to the rebuilding of their society and the building of the Parthenon o This amassed empire is an example of globalization O O O The palaces were an expression of power and colonialization The ruler received tributes from the nations in the audience hall They used examples from many different places I Greek columns Babylonian bulls I Lamassu guardians from the Khorsabad Lotus flower patterns from the Egyptians Along the bottom one of the palace walls runs a giant tribute relief Darius is enthroned with his son Xerxes behind him quotThe king has become the god I The Persians escorted the meats in military dress The images of them suggest casual conversation Please see lecture slides for more details and pictures Lecture 4 The Power of Images and Iconoclasm in the Ancient and Contemporary Worlds InClass Discussion 1 September 11 2015 Seeing is different than reading or hearing Iconic momentvisual representation 0 Partially spontaneous Has a resonance for photographers to a past photo Visual Images have power Visual memory More recent focus on Sadaam Hussein 0 His toppling of power is related to the toppling of his statue in 2003 o This was staged it was not spontaneous yet this still has a lot of visual representation power Votive figures 0 These were discovered buried for protection 0 They were found in a room with a thronelike platform in it 0 These figures were given by the individuals to be placed in the temple Most Fridays we will be having an inclass discussion separate from our discussion sections If Professor Dale has slides and says important things about them that does not have to do with the discussion questions then I will type up the notes as I have done for today If Professor Dale talks more about the discussion questions I will not put them up here but I will include things from the discussion that we might need to know on the study guide
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