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# Week 2 Notes CHE 106 - M001

Syracuse

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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Merwin on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 09/14/15

Doyle Chemistry Lecture Week 2 98 Guaranteed questions coming from this class 10 from chp 1 1120 chp 2 2130 chp 3 Final had 45 qs 5 q per chapter Any Def could be an exam question Get comfortable with the information formatting and units used Define and elementa substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances The smallest unit of an element in the atom New Most substances are compounds Alotropes of the same elmement ex Diamonds and pencil lead are pure carbon A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined 0 The smallest unit here is the molecule The law of definite proportions states that a pure compound always contains definite or constant proportions of the lemets by mass 1000g Sduim Chloride with always contain 03934g of Na and 06066g of chloride chemically combined NaCl A mixture is a material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances unlike a pure compound a mixture has variable compounds Classified as 1 Heterogeneous consists of physically distinct parts 2 Homo consists of uniform physical parts solution is NaCl or H20 Mathematical Skills 0 Mathematics is at the core of chemistry and all of the sciences 0 You must use a scientific calculator in this course 0 Several mathematical skills relevant to this course are reviewed in Appendix A 0 Scientific Exponential Notation 0 Logarithms 0 Algebraic Operations 0 Graphing Scientific Notation Idea of precision and accuracy sig figs Write a number in the form of A X 10quotm A is a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 M is the exponent and is a power of 10 or integerwhole number Q EX Write 4853 in Sci Not Ans 4853X10A3 The base number Q EX Write 00568 in Sci Fig Ans 568X10A2 568 10x10 Basic Idea 1 Shift the decimal point to the left or right to produce a number between one and ten 2 Count how many places you moved the decimal point this is the m exponent 3 If you moved left m is pos If you moved right m is neg Rounding EX Give two answers that you would get the math correctly for but you must round up or down on one of the answers This is a procedure for dropping non significant didgits in a calculations And adjustsing the last reported digit Rules 1 Look at the last digit to be dropped and if it is 5 or higher add one to the last digit to be retained then drop all others to the right 2 Q EX 12151 to 3 sig figs122 3 If it is less than 5 simply drop it and all digits to the right 4 Q EX 1143 to 3 sig figs121 Measurements and significant figures balanced equations look ahead DEF Measurement is the comparison of a physical quantity to be measured with a unit of measurement ES Length meters Masskilograms Time sec Measurement has precision and it has accuracy DEF Precision refers to the closeness of a set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity DEF Accuracy refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its actual value Ex Trying to hit a bullseye If you get all darts in the top of the board it is A poor accuracy B Good Precision All dars all over A and B Bad of both All in the Bullseye C Good Precsion and Accuracy To indicate the the precision of the measurement number we use significant figures 1st time is a uke 2nd time is a coincidence 3rd time is probably true DEF precsion is shown in the sig figs The error in the experiment comes to the weakestless precise number Significant Figs themselves are those digits in a measured number that include all certain digits plus a final digit having some uncertainty Amn exact number is not something we will worry about If it is exact we are done with it TJ here is not uncertainty You do not use sug figs with these Exact numbers have noooo effect on Sig Figs since an exact number arise when you count items or define a unit EX if you have 9 you have exactly 9 So how do we count sigfigs Rules 1 All non zero digits are significant EX 1234 has 4 sig figs 179 has 3 sig figs 2 Zeros between significant figures are significant EX 1I234 has 5 SF 3 Zero s preceding the first nondigit are not sig EX 000457 has 3 sig figs 4 Zero s to the right of the decimal after a nonzero digit are significant EX 12300 has 5 sig figs a If not a decimal number then zeros at the end of a number may or may not be significant EX 900gt1 2 or 3 sig figs 9000 is 4 sig figs for sure To fix the first 900 use sci not b If writing 900x10quot2 indicates the precision of 3 SF c If writing 90x10quot2 indicates precsion of 2 SF EX How many significant figures are there in the measured number 00080710 5 sig figs What happens when applying mathematical functions Rules 1 When multiplying or dividing give as many sig figs as the least found in the measurement 2 When adding or subtracting give the same number of decimalsnumbers after the decimal point as the least found in the measurements used 3 EX 1403 sf10244 sig figs 013671875 no must round1137due to rounding 4 EX 18421 si fig 23243 sig fig186524 What happens when multiple functions are present EX 32056104523 Rules Evaluate everything in the paraenthesis first 1 2 Then do any X or 3 Then or 4 NOTE carry all digits through to final 32056104523 3205265413023336s gt 233363X10quot3gt 23X10quot3 Units Use the international system if Units SI syetem Seven base units from which all others are derived NQP PWPE Mass gram or kg Length meter m Time seconds s Temperatur KelvinK Amount of the substance mole mol Electric current Amper A Luminous intensity Condela Cd SI is a metric ie the decimal system Pre x Pre x Swarm bul Ward Eunuem enel interim peeMel Prefixes Ueee with El Unite Emmi entilaill Nlutatien mm gigu G in 1th M It i Ilia 1 been fr H1 54 Lil Llih ii z i r5 rhthm li i will In m lien 1 Milli ill Zlilj l p quotmmu I39 Ill 39i WHY ll 39JHELLUHEL39El llllgl H1 hill im t 39I lllll lHlllsll ll mifl lieu 39I iiiEm LIHEIH llM Ll l Hl 1 Jill IEIILIEITILIWLH I Hill hm I H um I tenth I n E l ntlnfiLlrae39itllih I It39llI I I HEILIMLIHI IE39I ME I I39I39niillisumhl HJHMH EH hill lm39lllfl iglIHlHIEHHJHH I H39i lziu nnnlf l h tuned r5 Ii l39llli Ill IZHEHEHHITJEHHJHl HalllllllllHHillHil lllHHZI 39i 39I H H 39I K NJquot 39I be Hi 39I K m39 1 3e Hiquot I E NJ 39I nt Hi 3 HJ 39 I 2 Hi 5 I H H quot iKHJ a 1K i I Elli quoti IKlll quot39 quotThe prE39FmEE most frequently UEErEl by cihernisx ta appear in bold type I MEMORIZE Bacteria that changes your brain composition to benefit itself Tetnis eW Temperature 0 No Celsiusbased on water or Fahrenheitbased on alcohol 0 Use Kelvin 0 Kelvin is the true measure of temp since it is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particle in your sample 0 DEF 0 K 273 15 degrees C any motions in the atom colder than this will stop 0 DEF K deg C 27315 0 DEF deg CF 32 18 0 Water freezes at 27315 K 0 deg C 32 Deg F 0 Water Boil at37315 K 100 deg C 212 F 0 Human Temp 31013 K 378 C 986 F 910 Things to know On scientific notation a number is written in the form of A X 10quotn Precision and Accuracy Measurement and Significant Figures The rules with mult Div add subtr PEMDAS Derived Units EX speed DEF speed the distance traveled in unit time In SI speed is ms meters SI unit of length second SI Unit for time You do not need to know conversion factorsback of the book has a list of them EX volume Length cubed I great for solids but not so great for liquidsL mL 1 cmquot31 mL 1 mquot3 1 dL 1c 1mL1 cmquot3 EX Density Density has a mass per unit volume DEF dmv units are gcmquot3 M11iquid Cmquot3 solids L for gases Dimensional analysis Keep the units With the numbers as you go so you can make sure the right units come out at the end Needs conversion factors How many feet in 20 years Conversion Factor 3 ft per 9 Express speed of light in mihr EX ms lmihr 1 Find converstion 1609m in 1 mi 2 3600s in 1 hr 299792 658 ms X s600s1 hr X 1 mi160hr mihr 6708 X 10quot8 EX 3 mph to ftmin Need conversion fact 5280 ft in one miles and 1 hour in 60 min 3 mihr X 1 hr60min X 5200 ftl mil 264 ftmin Now Chemistry Chp 2 Atomic Theory and Structure starting With John Dolton credited With the formulation of the atomic theory and structure His theory offers an eXplanation of the structure of matter Four Postulates All matter is composed With indivisible atoms An element is a type of matter composed of only one type of atam Each atom of the element having the same properties isotopes A compound is a type of matter composed of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions A chemical reaction consists of the rearrangements of the atom s presences in the reactions substances to give new chemical combinations IMPORTANTE Atoms are not created or destroyed or broken into smaller particles by any chemical reaction Protons define the element neutrons define the isotpes Moving forward he will use atomic symbols BRING PERIODIC TABLE TO CLASS You should note that DaltonDalton s postulates were put forward in the late 18th and early 19th centuries Incredibly famous Ernst Rutherford showed that atoms were in fact themselves mostly empty space and contained sub atomic particles His experiments showed that the atom consists of two distinct areas one a nucleus which is positively charged and two one or more electrons which are very light and negatively charged They don t spin in orbitals but instead in waves you can only predict them in a region Can never know both the position m velocity 1909 US physicist Robert Milliken measured the charge of the electron 1602 x 10quot19 coulombs JJ Thompsen worked out the ratio of the e mass to charge so between them the mass of the electron was calculated I 9109 X 1031 kg In fact this is 1800 times smaller than the smallest atomH therefore something must be smaller than an atom So Rutherford purposed instead his nuclear model and his very famous Gold Leaf experiment gave it credibility He took naturally emitting Alpha particles He particles and put a hole through a lead plate to only allow the particles to go through the central plate took an Alpha particle detector and put in a gold filter type deal If Thompsem was right they would all be dif ected and Ruth wanted to see how many went through and how many were de ected Fired alpha partiles from spontaneous radio active decay at gold foil most past right through the foil only one in 8000 de ected showing that atoms are made up smaller parts Aside from a core nucleus constisting of most of the atoms mass an atom is empty space

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