Arkansas Tech University
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackayla Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Willbanks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
DID- Dissociative Identity Disorder mainly environmental. Starts in early childhood and continues. 1) Clinical Description a) Amnesia-must be present to be diagnosed. They have memory lapse when the alters take over the body. Some alters believe that they are the only person while others share and facilitate “playing time” b) Dissociation of personality- There is a lack of identity. DID begins when you are still developing who you are, so in childhood. c) Adopt several identities or alters i) 2 to 100 ii) Average=15 iii) Unique characteristics- (1) Alters are in control of different emotional states. They can have different allergies, gender, style, etc. In the United States of Tara, she becomes a man as protection and says that she got her stuff blown off in Vietnam. 2) Characteristics a) Host- 2 ways. The host is the actual person or The host knows about the alters and is kind of the mother hen. b) Switch 3) Alters a) Fight alters: respond to threats. Defensive, avoid attachment, dependence and emotional needs. Often inflict injuries on self and others b) Caretaker: Focus on care of others, both inside and out. Interjects, real or fictional, of who the child perceived as caring. Named after who or what they represent. c) Other alters: twin parts, seen as good and evil. Handicap may represent a forbidden act such as listening, talking, or seeing. Ex. Wendy had an alter who couldn’t talk. d) Many are stuck in trauma time and are exiled by others. Some stay in childhood state. 4) Can it be faked? a) Real vs. false memories- Some alters don’t even remember the trauma b) Suggestibility c) Hypnosis studies d) Simulated amnesia e) Demand Characteristics f) Physiological measures i) Eye movements- Different vision. Some have to wear glasses while other alters don’t. ii) GSR iii) EEG 5) DID Stats a) 1.5% per year (more than schitzo. So probably biased) b) Female: male=9:1 c) Onset=childhood d) High comorbidity rates i) Axis 1 ii) Axis 2 e) Lifelong, chronic course 6) Etiology a) The posttraumatic model proposes that some people are particularly likely to use dissociation to cope with trauma and this is a key factor in causing people to develop trauma b) The sociocognitive model, considers DID to be the result of learning to enact social roles. According to this model, alters appear in response to suggestions by therapists, exposure to media 7) Etiology (PTSD Model) a) Innately hypnotizable b) Traumatic ex. Disturbs personality development c) Denied chance for spontaneous recovery d) Alter holds traumatic memories and is stuck 8) Four Factors Model a) Capacity for dissociation b) Trauma experience overwhelm child’s non-dissociative coping capacity c) Secondary structuring with names, gender, experiences, etc (alters) i) Multiple stressors and perps, sig. involvement in alters, high creativity and intelligence, extreme withdrawal into fantasy. It’s an extreme coping mechanism. Ex. Girls may think that if she were a boy the trauma wouldn’t have happened so she forms an alter. d) Lack of soothing and restorative experiences; isolation; left to own devices for moderating distress. 9) Developmental model a) Inability to develop unified sense of self maintained across bx states b) Fragmentation and encapsulation of trauma may serve to protect caregiver relationships (SPLITTING- ex. Father causes trauma. Child sees that dad as bad, but when he takes her out for ice cream, he is good. Everything is all good and all bad.) c) Discrete personified behavioral states(alters) excapsulates certain trauma and memories and mitigates effects of overall development d) Disturbed caregiver-child attachments further disrupt child’s ability to intergrate experiences e) Secondary structuring gradually occurs 10)Commonalities a) Does NOT arise from a previously mature, unified personality b) Results from failure of normal integration caused by overwhelming experiences and disturbed caregiver-child interactions during critical early developmental periods c) This, in turn, leads to some traumatized children to develop relatively discrete 11) Treatment a) Similar to PTSD treatment i) Reintegration of identities ii) Identify and neutralize cues/triggers iii) Visualization iv) Coping- Extremely dangerous because if they bring up the trauma, they may switch to cope
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