Week 2/29-3/4 Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Teen Relationships Sexual Behavior Teens get a mixed message Media promotes sex - TV - Movies Parents deny it exists Religion forbids it Boys and girls are equally sexually active Why do teens have sex? - Rite of passage - Forbidden act - Equate sex with adulthood - Some feel required to do it to keep relationship Sex 50% had sex by age 17 USA highest rate of teen pregnancies - Keeps going out - Because of lack of education Unplanned Pregnancy Lack of Fertility Education - Hot tub myth - Pulling out myth - Rhythm method (“period sex”) Lack of Contraceptive Education - Banana demo Lack of Contraceptive Consistency - Miss pill Embarrassment of Purchase Communication Skills - Ask about STDs - Partners - Assumption other person is protected Cognitive Development - Personal fable - Optimistic Bias - “it won’t happen to me” Planned Teen Pregnancy Need to feel loved Need to control relationship - Creates resentment, avoidance Need to feel “grown up” - Need for attention from family, friends, significant other Avoid making an academic/career choice - Lack of career/ academic skills Comprehensive Sexuality Education Start in elementary school Teach detailed information of sexual development (anatomy) Sexual behavior - STDs - Contraception - Abortion - Sexual orientation - Masturbation Provide easy access to contraception Interpersonal Relationships Friendships - Form our personality Teach - Appropriate self-disclosure - Art of debate - Perspective taking/empathy - Human condition - Dissolves personal fable Childhood vs. Teen Friendships Childhood - Emphasis on shared activities (riding bikes and sports) - Same gender friends Adolescent - Mixed gender friends - Value trust and loyalty - Girls emphasize intimacy - Boys emphasize shared activities - Conform more to peer standards Dating Average age: 13 80% had a romantic relationship by 11 grade Formal dating is an American culture phenomenon from 1900s - Young men could “call” upon a women Dating scripts - Formal rules for dating - Roles followed - Still highly influenced by gender Boys – proactive script - Initiate - Plan - Pick-up - Open the door - Pay - Initiate sexual contact Girls – reactive script - Wait to be asked - Spend time dressing/grooming - Responds to sexual contact Teen Dating Patterns Same gender groups meet publically - Mall - Sporting event - Fast food - Coffee shop Social gathering arranged by adults - Dances - House parties Mixed gender groups attend on event - Movies - Bowling Date as a pair Teens who date regularly - More popular - More positive self-image Early teens in serious relationships - More depressed mood - Girls feel sexual pressure Reasons to Date 6-11 grade - Recreational (just for fun) - Intimacy (form close emotional relationships) - Status (impressing others by how often one dates and whom one dates) College Students - Intimacy - Companionship - Recreational Intimate Relationships - many different ways to “love” someone Triangular Theory of Love – Robert Steinberger - Love is not stagnant, it changes Nature of love relationships depends on the combo of 3 things 1. Passion – strong physical desire 2. Intimacy – disclosure, secrets, insecurities 3. Commitment Types of Love 1. Infatuation – don’t know each other a. Passion b. Teenage idol c. No intimacy d. One night stand e. No commitment 2. Liking a. Intimacy b. Bartender c. No commitment d. Therapist e. Internet friend 3. Romantic a. Passion b. Intimacy c. Unsure if you will marry d. No commitment e. Healthy in beginning of relationship 4. Companionate a. Intimacy b. Commitment c. No passion d. Best friends 5. Fatuous a. Passion b. Commitment c. No intimacy d. Need someone outside of relationship to talk to 6. Empty a. Commitment b. No intimacy c. No passion d. Unhappy couple who stays together 7. Consummate a. Passion b. Intimacy c. Commitment Finding a Partner Gender Identity - Understanding you are male or female - Physical qualities Ex. – chromosomes, hormones, sex organs - Established by age 3 Cisgender - Accept gender you were born into Gender Dysmorphia - From childhood, you feel uncomfortable with your gender - Feel born into wrong body Transsexuals - One changes gender - Cross sex hormones - Sexual reassignment surgery - Transman = female to male (most satisfying) - Transwomen = male to female Intersexual - Born with both genital organs - One more functional than other Gender Role Identity - Masculine vs. Feminine behaviors - Psychological qualities Androgyny - Combine both - Can’t tell if male or female Bigender - Change personality from one to the other Transvestism - Cross dress - Most are heterosexual - Like to fool people - Not performers Sexual Orientation Identity - Preference for males or female sexual partners - Erotic attraction - Unhealthy to solely homo or hetero sexual Bisexual - Attracted to both Bicurious - Willing to experiment with gender different from their orientation GLBTQ - Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, questioning - Community support group - Average age of realization : 10(4 grade) - Average age of disclosure: 17-18 Homosexuality – nature or nurture? Neurological Studies - Simon Levay found gay mean had smaller hypothalamus - Large part of sample group had AIDs (critique) - Not duplicated Twin Studies - Monozygotic(MZ), identical twins, 52% concordance rate - Should be closer to 100% for genetic reasoning behind homosexuality Hormone Levels - No difference Correlation Studies - Lesbians have a longer ring finger compared to index finger - Prenatal exposure to testosterone? Psychoanalytic Theories (Freud) 2 kinds of homosexuals 1. Phallic fixation a. Effeminate and “butch” b. Not a true homosexual c. Never identified with same sex parent d. Accept the idea of man/woman- active/passive role 2. Oral fixation a. True homosexual b. Primary narcissism (in love with self) c. Seek person similar to them (gender, personality, looks) d. Man seeks masculine man e. Woman seeks feminine woman Social Learning Theory Avoidance Learning - Person had unpleasant heterosexual relationship Early Fantasy - Early maturation - Hung out with same sex friends - First sexual fantasy with same sex Exotic becomes Erotic Daryl Ben - Girls who hung out mostly with boys Boys = ordinary Girls = intriguing - Boys who hung out mostly with girls Boys = intriguing Girls = ordinary Sexual Problems - Begins in adolescence Paraphilic Disorders - Odd behaviors related to sex - For at least 6 months - Must cause distress or impairment to the person or person harm/risk of harm to others - 90% male Fetishism - Object is used as sexual stimulus during masturbation or intercourse Ex. Underwear, stockings, fur, shoes, gloves, car exhaust pipe - Don’t necessarily need the other person - Fondle, kiss, smell, and masturbate with item - Not dangerous - Don’t commit serious crimes Transvestic Fetishism - Wear their fetish - Arousal and masturbation through dressing - 70-80% heterosexual - No gender dysmorphia Exhibitionism - Expose genitals to a stranger for sexual arousal - Usually male expressing to a female - Plan it, love planning it, love reaction - Most are in 20s - Sexual contact is not the goal - Enjoy other’s shock Voyeurism - Observe unsuspecting people - Not significant other getting undressed or having sex - 95% involve strangers - Often masturbates while watching - Sexual contact not the goal - Due to: Lack of sex ed Poor social skills
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