Week 2/29-3/4 Health
Week 2/29-3/4 Health HEA 102-010
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HEA 102-010 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dina Hayduk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health/Wellness in Health Sciences at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
March 2, 2016 Addiction Process st Most people use drugs for 1 time when they are teenagers - 3 million new users of illicit drugs in 2015 - 51% under the age of 18 Youth who start using a substance more likely to develop a problem - Starting before age 15, 5X more likely to develop dependence later than those who start at 21 Drug abuse and addiction is a major burden to society - Cost exceeds trillions of dollars, but many still have a functional job - Fill crime system like jails Withdrawal - Alcohol has the worse withdrawal and could be deadly - Different with each drug Anhedonia: pleasure “deafness” - Person is no longer able to derive normal pleasure from those things that have been pleasurable in the past - Addiction is a stress induced “hedonic dysregulation” Natural Rewards Elevate Dopamine - Food - Sex Drugs effect on dopamine release - Amphetamine - Cocaine - Nicotine In addiction: a line is crossed Non-Addict - Never used in drugs - Experimented in past - Uses drugs - Abuses drugs - Engages in addictive behavior Ex. Sex, gambling, spending money - Drug = drug Addict - Drug = survival Stages of Addiction 1. Trying (try one, build tolerance, look further for drugs) 2. Recreational (not priority, mild consequences) 3. Abuse (treatable, believes it is recreational, abuser knows about problem last) Ex. Shoplifting, stealing, worse consequences 4. Pinned down (addicted) Addict vs. Abuser Addict - Blames on other things - Excuses Abuser - Takes ownership - Guilt Myths about addiction - Addicts are bad/sinful - Addiction is caused by one’s abnormal psychology or character traits - People are born with an “addictive personality” before using a chemical - Addiction is a result of a pathological family system James Olds, PhD. (1922-1976) - Discovers reward system in midbrain - Mice self-administer electric currents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the mid brain - Stopped eating, having sex, until they died Disease Model with Biopsychosocial Perspective - Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry. Leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social, and spiritual manifestations. Reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and or relief by substance use and other behaviors Organ Femur Brain Defect Fracture Inability to make choices Symptoms Screaming *different for every drug Bleeding Generally, Deformity Erratic behavior Disability Illegal activity Medical Disease Model of Addiction - Voluntary drug-taking/behavior becomes compulsive - Addicts cannot control their drug use/behavior like: Ex. Depression, Parkinson’s disease - Addicts cannot be held accountable Mid brain is in charge of: - Drug craving - Cueing - Hunger - Greed - Lust - Fear *most humans work forebrain to mid brain, addicts work mid brain to forebrain 5 levels of risks for Addiction 1. Genetics 2. Reward- dopamine 3. Memory – glutamate 4. Stress – CRF contracts dopamine 5. Choice – hypofrontality Genes - 50-60% of risk of addiction is genetic - Genes determine risk – generally complex Ex. Heart disease, CF - 26 genes appear to be implicated for alcoholism Low responders vs. High responders - Effect to alcohol - Addicts- drugs for not “feel” different than they do to non-addicts s
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