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Nutrition Energy Balance Notes

by: Alexandra West

Nutrition Energy Balance Notes NFSC 100

Alexandra West

GPA 3.607

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About this Document

These notes cover this week's lectures about Energy Balance and Obesity
Principls Nutrition
Seong-Ho Lee
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra West on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFSC 100 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Seong-Ho Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principls Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Maryland - College Park.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Energy Balance and Obesity  I. Energy Balance  A. Formula: energy in ­ energy out = energy stores 1. “Energy In” refers to the amount of calories an individual consumes daily 2. “Energy Out” refers to basal metabolism, voluntary activities, and the “thermic  effect of foods.”  II.   Energy Distribution A. The Thermic Effect of Food covers 5­7% of calories consumed that day; this  energy accounts for digestion and absorption in the body B. The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) accounts for the number of calories you are  burning constantly. How much energy are you using to stay alive? Factors of BMR  include: 1. Age  2. Growth  3. Fever 4. Malnutrition 5. Height 6. Stress 7. Body Composition 8. Ambient Temperature 9. Thyroxine 10. Fasting/Starvation  C. Gender Difference in BMR 1. Muscle mass is increased by testosterone (in males) but restricted by  estrogen (in females). 2. BMR comes from lean tissue III. Health Risks Associated with Obesity  A. Obesity is considered a chronic disease B. Approximately 300,000 people die each year from obesity related diseases C. Obesity increases the risks of: 1. Hypertension  2. Heart Disease 3. Stroke 4. Diabetes  5. Hernias 6. High accident rates 7. Flat feet 8. Some cancers 9. Insomnia 10. Arthritis IV. Body Composition A. Consists of Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass (Muscle Mass) B. 12­20% body weight of men is fat, and 20­30% body weight of women is fat  C. Measured by anthropometry, densitometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis  V. Causes of Obesity  A. Metabolic Causes 1. Hunger 2. Hormones and Enzymes (such as ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and lipoprotein  lipase) 3. Fat cell size and number  B.  Genetic Causes 1. If an individual has one obese parent, their chances of becoming obese are  between 30 and 70 percent 2. Twin studies C.  Environmental Causes  1. Inactivity 2. Caloric Beverage Consumption 3. Portion Sizes VI.  Strategies for Weight Loss A. Diet Modification 1. Create an energy deficit 2. Eat more nutrient dense and high carbohydrate foods 3. Log your meals 4. Don’t skip meals! 5. Don’t trust fad diets 6. Improve physical activity B.  Behavior Modification 1. Suppress inappropriate eating habits 2. Encourage appropriate eating habits 3. Reward and repeat positive habits C.  Alternative Treatments 1. Surgery 2. Drugs 3. Low Calorie Diets


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