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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Katherine O'Guin on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Lecture One Basic amp Applied Psychology Psychology is a discipline or field of study that attempts to explain the causes of persons through the scientific method Psychology acts mostly as a Basic Science 0 the goal is to create new knowledge for its own sake 0 As a Basic Scientist the goal is to expand the light and reduce the darkness the whole purpose is enlightenment 0 The ultimate goal is to create a Bank of Knowledge Psychology is also an Applied Science 0 The goal is to apply what we already know to the solution of real world problems 0 Clinical psychology is an example What was said here 0 Applies to all Sciences 0 Combination is unusual Examples physiologyphysics Basic Science Medicine engineering Applied Science 0 Too simple only basic sciences discover and only applied sciences apply NO it is more complicated Lecture Two Frustrations Three sources of frustration in psychology 1 Language very complicated 2 Things are complex they will tell you this 3 Disagreement psychologists say go one way and then say go the other The things that unite psychologists 1 persons they cannot define the word person to where they all agree on it key concept Abortion When does a person Begin re ects values Euthanasia Mercy Killings When does a person end Psychologists are experts in persons since different psychologists de ne the person differently they are experts in different things 0 this problem has a real world impact on 0 Humanistic psychologist has a moral obligation 0 Christian psychologists adultery is a sin repent rethink but he could be forgiven and if it doesn t work out get a divorce in uenced by values 0 Science will never solve this problem 0 limits on science 0 all scientist reject the suggestion of freedom 0 These kinds of problems are very common 0 people use the same word but with different meanings 0 Lover are experts in love but since love means different things to different people we are experts in different kinds of love 99 6 O O 0 OP causes The problem is not definitionalcause can be defined Cause gt effect An antecedent that leads to a consequence A before leading to an After Necessary element in explanation Almost all psychologists agree that person are caused by variables a variable is anything that can vary 0 Between person variables 0 within person variables Amount of sex hormones in the blood supply it varies Things are complex There are so many causes out there 0 some psychologist just want to simplify things which makes them excellent scientists 0 Principle of Parsimony you should explain the most with the least I they will disagree with what is really important I The NatureNurture controversy I Psychologist lNature I things are simple if you can explain how the body fully works you can explain the person fully 0 Psychologist 2Nurture I things are simple you learn to become who you are as a person due to the things you experience in life I Not just two cause they are really five causes Model of Causality scientific question 0 What is the cause of the person I five basic answers to the questionbook Physiopersonal Physiology functioning of the body Small and Large Structures can study one specific part of the body or an entire system of the body for entire career Intrapersonal within personmind Brain physical structure can touch it Mind feelings desiree beliefs reason opinion mental events Persons are organized as a narrative Psychologists believe you need to understand the narrative of the person in order to understand the person as a whole Interpersonal Between personsrelationships with significant others a person with whom you share a face to face relationship They have an impact on you Mother Father Sister Brother etc caused by the people you spend time with people who affect you you hangout with bad company you become bad company Metapersonal More highly organized patterns of relationship associated with culture amp history your life is scripted by you but also by culture and history You are caused by when and where you are born It gives you opportunities that others might not be available to others in different places Your life is caused by people you have not met and cannot meet This is the most important level of causality Nonpersonal Persons are caused by the physical environment Things that happen physically on the planet affect us You are literally what you eat and what you drink Global structures cause you Ex oil where it is what you do to get it impacts you Who you are as person is caused by your body mind relationships culture and history and your physical environment What is the cause of person 0 What causes the person to be depressed I Physiopersonal Thing are complex A psychiatrist assumes a depressed person is caused by abnormal brain chemistry Low serotonin activity in the brain Brain cells communicate using chemicals 1 will give you this medicine and this will change the chemicals in your brain to make you not depressed I Intrapersonal Aaron T Beck gt Cognitive trialgt self world future If you are depressed person the world is HORRIBLE PLACE Very negative view on everything in life Depression is caused by a pessimistic explanatory style I am terrible the world is horrible there is no hope This makes you the villain of your own story I Interpersonal There is an interpersonal loss that triggers the brain You lose pleasures in life which triggers depressions Divorced break up in a relationship loss of a loved one All kinds of experiences in life lead to interpersonal loss Triggers depression and then makes it WORSE People find depressed people to be depressing I Metapersonal Cooperative communal societies I defined by your relationships I less likely to be depressed Individualistic competitive societies I Opportunities to be great and happy I can succeed and move high up but when you start falling you will move all the way to the bottom I More likely to be depressed Life in a more competitive culture makes you more vulnerable to depression If you have a commitment to a certain belief tend to not be depressed depression may be caused by a lack of a system of meaning I Nonpersonal some people are depressed because of a poor diet I you need to eat foods that will help your brain produce serotonin Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD I how do you treat them Light which affects hormone that helps with the serotonin you need sunlight Social Sciences The social sciences are disciplines that attempt to explain the causes of persons through the scientific method 0 social scientists disagree 0 different ones have different values 0 thing are complex 0 you can look at a social science and say they specialize in one of the five reasons of causality Physiopersonal gt Psychiatry Intrapersonal gt Psychoanalysis Interpersonal gt Behavioral Psychology gt Social Psychology Metapersonal gt Anthropology gt Sociology gt Political Science gt Economics Nonpersonal gt Nutrition gt Geography Scientific method gt attempts to solve problems with science Philosophy gt what is the cause of a person gt will not use scientific method gt uses Rationalism the belief that all true knowledge comes from the use through logic and reason alone gt assumes you think your way through a solution All scientist are committed to Empiricism the belief that all true knowledge comes through experience Seeing is believing Sensing is believing all scientist are from Missouri Humanities Philosophy religious studies Literaturelt Concerns What is the cause of a person lt Social Sciences gtsimilar because of their Methods gt Natural sciences Biology chemistry meteorology geology physics The social sciences are in the middle of the action but that doesn39t mean they are anymore important than the other sciences Nucleus of understanding In science the name of the game is causality All scientists put bread on the table by Determinism is the belief is that everything is determined In Science the best game is the experiment a highly structured experience empiricism designed to isolate cause and effect Determinism The experiment is the perfect marriage between determinism and empiricism and their children are called knowledge All experiments start with a phenomenon that which reveals itself Step two hypothesis presumed relationship between variables must be testable in an experiment must have a presumed cause and a presumed effect 3 Scientific method Experiment 0 Phenomenon gt that which reveals itself 0 Hypothesis gt presumed relationship between variables 0 Independent variable gt variable that researcher manipulates gt presumed cause 0 Dependent Variable gtvariable that researcher measures gt presumed effect any adequate experiment must have at least two groups Experimental group gt Group that receives the independent variable of interest Control group gt a comparison group as much like the experimental group as possible except it does not receive the independent variable of interest Mr Rogers group Confound gtoccurs when an uncontrolled variable is systematically linked with the Independent variable endless number of potential confound Replication gt same experiment Logic of an experiment 0 Same 0 Different No one experiment proves anything Two kinds of the scienti c method 0 Experiment 0 Everything else 0 Correlation a CO relationship between variables how they fit together I Three possible outcomes of a correlation study I Positive correlation for a direct relationship variables move in the SAME direction Ask people How much money do you have and how happy are you Put the response on a graph they call it a scatter plot Line that divides through the middle Best fitting Line Always moving upward Correlation Coef cient is a number that expresses the direction and magnitude between two variables 10 means a perfect 1 to 1 relationship between X and Y 10 is the strongest correlation you can get I Negative correlation Inverse Poorer people are happier and the richer you are the less happy you are Best fitting line would be doward going Money buys misery The scrooge effect The highest correlation coefficient would be 10 and thing above that number would be wrong because that is the highest point I NO relationship The scatter plot would have no best fitting line because all the outcomes would have no relationship between variables The correlation coefficient would be zero Figure out the average level of Happiness This is Parallel to the X axis There is a SMALL positive correlation between MONEY and HAPPINESS 0 EX A good marriage predicts way more happiness than a lot of money 0 10 0 gt 10 0 A negative correlation does not mean an absence of an a relationship it just means the presence of a relationship which is inverse 0 Money buyscauses a little happiness NO IT DOESN T o NEVER INFER CAUSATION BASED ON CORRELATION I Two problems I Directionality Problem X gt Y or Y gt X I Third Variable Problem Many times with correlated variables there is absolutely NO cause of relationship at all Instead the correlation is produced by a third variable that produces your two variables of interest Examples I There is a strong positive correlation between the number of churches in the town and the number of bars Must be third variable that determines why there are the certain amount of churches and bars I There is a small positive correlation between the number of ice cream cones consumed and rapes that happen that day After rape you want an ice cream Must be a third variable what must it be Heat causes stress and stress causes things to happen SO the weather may be the culprit of this We can t control the really important variables in life These variables can not be manipulated Nature gt Nurture 0 Biological Psychology gt Neurosciences I Mind Body Problem body39s move through time I In the late 1700s and early 1800s sciences started using empiricism 0 Divide amp Conquer I Anger gt Amygdala I one small part of mind and one small part of body and put it together I The mind body problem will ultimately and presently be resolved through a process call Reductionism this is basic thing of all modern science I Reductionism is the belief that higher levels of functioning will be explained by lower levels of functioning The hole is equal to the sum of the parts I If I am a reductionist then i believe groups gt Person39s gt Cells gt Chemistry gt Physics I If I was a reductionist I would believe that physiology gt Psychology gt Biology gt Chemistry gt Physics I Eliminative Reductionism all scienti c talk about mind will be elimination and will be reduced to scienti c talk about the body I A person is just a body I Language would be radically transformed I When you39re dead you39re dead I Person s gt cells A cell is a biological factory I They all have a front office or boss Nucleus DNA It tells the factory what it is suppose to produce and when it needs to be produced I Cytoplasm these products are produced and sent to a packaging plant I Cell Wall Membrane this is where a lot of action is happening A membrane is an active living process I CELLS ARE PROTEIN FACTORIES A protein is a long squiggle of amino acids Where do they come from from your food Proteins are tools A cell is a biological tool factory They have a lot of work to do and to do that you need your tools The front office knows What you need Insulin is a biological tool that goes throughout the body to bring in sugar if you don t have this insulin you have diabetes
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