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Com 105 Week 8 Notes

by: Annabelle Hutson

Com 105 Week 8 Notes Com 105

Annabelle Hutson
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These are the class notes from week 8 in Com 105
Global Communications
Dr. Dixon
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Com 105 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Dixon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Global Communications in Communication at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Week 8 Notes Com 105 Print Media is NOT regulated by the FCC Judgement and Decision Making:  Two Parallel routes in human judgment and decision making.  Systematic Processing: Careful, conscious processing. There is a high motivation to process information. This type of processing is not relied on for day to day activity.  Heuristic Processing: fast instinctive, subconscious, processing. There is low motivation into processing information. These are snap judgements which not much processing goes into processing information.  Priming: It is something you encounter(word or action) which suddenly affects your thinking in a future moment. It is implicit memory in which exposure to a stimulus influences a response to another stimulus. Exposure to something can affect the way we behave when we encounter another something. It is SUBCONSCIOUS form of human memory concerned with perpetual identification of words and objects. We are aware of the prime, but not of how that prime can affect us.  Implicit Memory: is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.  Negative Media leads people to seek out more negative media than positive media.  People associate colors with different meanings, which can prime us: o Red -> danger, alert o Yellow -> caution o Green -> go, natural, environmental Types of Heuristics:  Availability heuristic: judgment based on ease of recall (what comes to mind when you think about it). Sometimes can lead us to think untrue things. Media Effect: Perceive risk of harm is high when it is in fact very, very low. Messages which are memorable can elicit an availability response. Messages are generally more memorable when they are extreme, often in a negative light. More (negative) emotional arousal then the greater recall we have on the information. There is greater availability due to emotional response.  Representativeness: judgements based on representation. Messages which provide representation can elicit this heuristic. Sometimes we rely on representation that result in errors in judgements.  Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: Human tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions. People's judgements and decisions are often influenced by an initial anchor. Once an anchor is set, other judgements are made by adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting  Representativeness - judgement based on perceived representation. Sometimes we rely on representation that result in errors in judgement. Messages that provide representation can elicit this heuristic. For example: we think there are many shark attacks and they are likely when in reality they are extremely rare, but because the media shows stories about shark attacks regularly people think they are more likely to happen.  Anchoring and Adjustment - deals with the first piece of information we receive, because it can affect our subsequent judgement making even when the information is not really that important. Once the anchor is set, other judgements are made by adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting other information around the anchor. Example: Negotiation, the first price is most important. When a house is put up for sale they set an initial price for people to work around. Media Coverage is an important anchor (Political Polls).  More Traditional Mass Media Effects:  Spiral of Silence - how mass media can effectively shut down and end conversations about opposition views. Proposed in 1974 and it explains the tendency of people to remain silent when they feel their views are opposed by a majority view. There is fear of being ostracized or fear of reprisal. This was created by Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann. Example: during George W. Bush's presidency people found the media covered pro-war views, thus affecting the general people who protested the war. It also relates to the psychologic effect of normative social influence.  Cultivation Theory - Created by George Gerbner in the 1970s. This theory says that television viewers are cultivated to view reality similarly to what they watch on television. Heavy television viewers are more likely to be affected. Over or under representation of issues can lead to misperceptions about reality. Part of the theory is "Mean World Syndrome" which says that people who watch a lot of crime shows tend to think crime is a regularity in society. Spiral Of Silence: Global Scale  RT is Russian State - supported news  Accused of pro-kremlin bias  Converge of anti-Putin protests different from Americans  Government use media to elicit the spiral of silence  If you were to survey people today they would most likely say that the world is extremely violent, more than it has been because of the amount of violent that is reported on. However the world has never been more peaceful as it is today, but because the media reports so regularly on these things people think that there is a lot of violence. This is due to the cultivation theory, because people believe that life on earth works the same way it does on television, and television focuses on violence to get attention.  Journalism takes advantage of people's need to know what threats or potential threats around them, in order to gain viewership.  Cultivation theory appears to work for high income and medium income, whereas people living in poorer neighborhoods are used to crime around them so the media does not affect them quite as much.


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