Notes 9/14 CRIM 402
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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hall on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 402 at George Mason University taught by Rudes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Punishment and corrections in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Social Control Social Control rues through the government or Religion Social Control is about guilty vs innocent rather than right vs wrong Against greater good or maker The correction system ranges from federal prison state prison and jail The difference between prison and jail is the length of time Prison is usually more than a year while jail is spent less than 12 months Inmate Population Federal10 State20 jailbetween 8 9 Rest are on probation or parole Corrections have 4 primary reasons this will be on the quiz PWF H M Retributionquoteye for an eye you do this I do thisquot IncapacitationRemoval of a person from society RehabilitationTreat them so they can go back to society Deterrence targets general or specialspeci c individual Making an example out of you Deters criminals from repeating crimes Deters the public from making creating the same crimes as others 0 The 2 most talked about reasons are Rehabilitation and Incapacitation Some laws have a 3 strike system This means that if you offend 3 times you can have anywhere between 25 years to life in prison 0 Society is moving back towards rehabilitation because incapacitation creates more crime 0 Laws are created because one thing happens and society wants to protect it from happening again 0 Some laws are created because it of the cost effect For example some prisoners can cost up to 30000 a year to stay in prison Restorative Justice Make up for the harm you have done quotRepair the damagequot Example stealing someone39s heirlooms and having to sit in front of the family and having to face that family face to face Types of sentencing 1 2 DeterminantDetermine amount of time Indeterminate ndeterminate amount of time Determinant Mandatory minimum sentencejudge cannot give you less than the minimum 0 This sentencing is important bc you see indeterminate across the state The judge determines the length of time you spend in prison 0 Lawyers fought this type of sentencing bc blacks were spending 10x time in prison then whites who committed the same crime 0 This type of sentencing is harsher because it causes onger sentencing For example before this type of sentencing was in place normally people could be in prison for up to 2 months now they are in prison for up to 24 months Truth Sentencing Clinton initiative says quotOffenders in federal prison have to serve 85 of their sentencequot No matter how good you are you must at least serve 85 At rst the states were not on board with this but Clinton threatened to pull funding unless they went with this program Most states joined but not all This puts a very strong stance on how long people are in quotYou do the crime you serve the timequot Corrections as a complex system Prisons Probation Parole GPS monitoring In home con nement work release center halfway houses treatment programs work release programs drug courts and other courts are all a part of the corrections system Code ofHammurabi Earliest system put together to punish people This started in the early 3100 BC Draconian CodePunishments are excessively harsh First rules put in place where punishment was the same for everyone 12 tabes Law makers made into sves Churches would often go against the state and would sometimes help our hide away individuals because the punishment was too harsh Robert Franshawe was punished for stabbing someone They believed that by dragging him in a cart tearing his esh burning him and cutting off his body parts and having them dragged across the city was fair punishment The rst penitentiary was built in 1830 The penitentiary was built to help punish peope Prisons in the 18305 were holding people until their sentences Then they would let them out Conditions were very bad health and sick were placed together wardens were selling their services and the strong was preying on the weak Social Contract Contract between the person and the government Key peoples Caesar Beccaria Father of criminology He was from Italy He wrote quotCrimes and Punishmentquot Real aim of punishment should be utility This is for the betterment of the whole Only punish in a way that is bene cial quotLack of rationalityquot Crime matching the level of punishment Jeremy Bentham John EnglishCriminal Law Created the quotHedonic Calculusquot Bentham Claims you can categorize punishment by pleasure or pain He developed penitentiaries He developed a prison and called it panoptical where the center of the building is circular Howard Birth of Penitentiary He was a sheriff He was concerned about the poor In 1773 he visited places where people were being housed in what was considered a prison He was shocked to see that many of the jailers were working for free They were not paid regularly or if at all Sometimes the inmates would have to quotbuyquot their way out and that is how some of the jailers were paid If you were given a seven year sentence you would most likely die due to the conditions He drafted the pen act that had 4 main principles 1 Secure and sanitize 2 Systematic 3 Abolition of all fees 4 Reformatory regiment He wanted to base it on reforming morality The Pennsylvania System Created to serving others and working hard mixed with solitary con nement Congregant system Held in isolation at night and working in silence during the day Contact Labor systemHelped inmates to work for their incarceration Prisons would take some or all of the money back at the end The south was using a leasing system inmates were leaded out to contractors Prisoners were sued as eld labors quotslavesquot Many of them would pick cotton California did some leasing for a while but a law was created saying inmates were not allowed to be used Reformatory movement Questioned pen Movement Worried this is now a problem bc they are coming out worse than they went in o The Marx system was created Marx system is a series of rewards given to inmates as they traverse in the system 0 Tickets are given out for good behavior and they can cash them in for rewards Inmates work better w systems of rewards Zebulon Brockway Comes up w a system Elmira reformatory Used the Marx system 0 Failure was seen as a weakness on the managementpoor administration not problems w concept 0 Criminal behavior is not the result of free will Criminals cannot control their conditions such as Living and their family Criminals can be treated to have crime free lives 4 ideas were implemented 1 Parole 2 Probation 3 Indeterminate Sentencing 4 Juvenile Courts Medical model you don39t feel well you go to the doctor and do what the doctor says 0 At the end of the treatment you should feel better 0 19505 became era of treatment 0 The new penologyprisons began using group therapy behavior modi cations shock therapy individual counseling psychotherapy as treatments Recidivism was at an alltime low National Academy ReportMain goal is to argue for sentence reduction will be on quiz 1 ProportionalityCriminal sentencing should be proportionate to the seriousness of the crime 2 Parsimony Punishment should not exceed the minimum need to achieve its legit purpose 3 Citizenshipthe conditions and consequences of imprisonment should not be so severe or lasting as to violate ones fundamental status as a member of society 4 Social justiceas public institutions in a democracy prisons should promote the general wellbeing of all members of society