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by: Sierra Alexander

ANTH350Lecture#2.pdf ANTH 350

Sierra Alexander

Speech, Thought and Culture
Dr. McKay

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Lecture #2 Notes
Speech, Thought and Culture
Dr. McKay
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Alexander on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 350 at Washington State University taught by Dr. McKay in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Speech, Thought and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/15
Lecture 2 Two Theoretical Perspectives 1 Ethno linguistics a Developed in the 196039s when anthropologists decided to try and understand what it meant to be a person in a culture instead ofjust looking at that observationally b Aims to explain the cultural meanings that are implicitcontained in a cultural dialect i Tries to get inside different cultures by using language as the medium ii Best known study trying to get inside the heads of homeless alcoholics quotYou Owe Yourself a Drunkquot written by Spradley Looks at the way homeless alcoholics use language to as a vehicle for understanding c Important to take an insider s perspective aka Emic Perspective 2 Socio Linguistics a Looks for patterns in language and tries to connect language to other social and economic phenomenon of different cultures what about the language reinforces what is happening in the culture b Uses an outsider perspective and looks at the structure of the culture instead of trying to relate to the people in the culture Aka Etic Perspective 3 These two perspectives are different ways of guring out how language and culture work together Anthropologists can utilize both perspectives because they are complimentary to one another Principles of Linguists 1 Descriptive instead of Prescriptive a Meaning Linguists are not trying to tell people how to talk prescriptive but are trying to record how people actually talk descriptive b Grammar rules are not the main concern but want to see how people actually talk c People are often selfconscious about their natural speech patterns 2 Linguistic Relativity a Meaning no language is better than any other language Each language uses speech to accomplish their communicative goals and therefore is a successful language When languages modernize the culture will also modernize and adapt and all language is capable of adaptation i Specialized vocabulary re ects what is important to different cultures 1 EX Mayan villages have a large vocabulary for distinguishing between different family members because it is important to their culture39s traditions The English language does not hold those same values Structure of Language 1 Phonemes of American English a IPA International Phonetic Alphabet was intended to be a language that would allow people to hear a sound and know how to spell that word even if their word was not in their native language i This unfortunately copied the habits of spoken language and broke up into dialects of its own b Aim is to use a bare minimum of symbols in order to learn how to listen for speech sounds how they form patterns and how to write them down 2 Consonants a Can easily be seen as the mouth is moving and make sense b A speech sound phon in which the column of air either goes inside or outside of the mouth is modi ed a lot 3 Vowel a A speech sound phon in which a column of air going inside or outside of the mouth is slightly modi ed 4 Semivowels a Are part vowel and part consonant 5 Explosive Sounds vs mposive sounds a Most language use explosive sounds pushing the air from the lungs up through the vocal tract and out through the mouth but some languages found in Africa mostly use implosive sounds sound like clicks Manners of Articulation 1 Meaning different styles of modifying the column of air coming up from the lungs and out the mouth explosive sound 2 Stops a Shutting off the column of air and then letting go b Ex the p sound c Two kinds of Stops i Vibrating vocal cords b sound ii NonVibrating vocal cords p sound 3 Fricative a Constantly modifying the column of air 4 Affricate a Combination of a stop and fricative CONSONAN Bilabial Nasal Labiodental Interdenta Dental Alveolar Retro ex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal TS Two M lipand l tongue touch curl tongu 39ca39 far 39sigh lips sound tooth tongue on topof tongue eside back backin throat between teeth mouth back39r touch of mouth sound teeth roof mouth Stops Fricatives Affricatives Nasals Laterals Semivowels Some of these sounds exists in languages but not in English which explains the blank spaces Children Pronounce Phonemes FP P PWF BilabialVoiceless 39pat p sound Bilabial Voiced 39bat39 b sound Alveolar Voiceless 39tip t sound Alveolar Voiced 39dip d sound Velar Voiceless 39code39 c sound Velar Voiced 39goat39 g sound Labiodental Voiceless 39few39 f sound Labiodental Voiced 39view39 v sound lnterdental Voiceless 39thank39 th sound 10lnterdental Voiced 39than39 th sound 11Alveolar Voiceless 39sip39 5 sound 12Alveolar Voiced 39zip39 2 sound 13Paata Voiceless 39shun39 sh sound 14Palatal Voiced 39assure39 sr sound 15Glottal Voiceless 39hot39 h sound 16Palatal Voiceless 39char ch sound 17Palatal Voiced 39jar39j sound 18Bilabial Voiced 39mat39 m sound 19Alveolar Voiced 39not39 n sound 20Aveoar Voiced 39lot I sound 21Bilabial Voiced 39wet39 w sound 22Retro ex Voiced 39rat39 r sound 23Palatal Voiced 39yet y sound Vowels 1 Made by modifying the column of air very little 2 Are classi ed by height of the tongue in the mouth Unrounded Rounded Front Central Back Hi h I BBeiliat u Boot 9 u Foot e Bait a Butted 0 Boat M39d E BUtted quot Butted I Bought Low ae Bat a Hot


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