Chapter 3 Notes Continued
Chapter 3 Notes Continued PSY 2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Villiotis on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Chapter 3 PSY2012 Neurons The body39s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons Neurons are nerve cells specialized for communication 3 Types of Neurons Sensory to the CNS Motor from the CNS lnterneurons CNS to CNS Dendrites receive information or electrochemical messages Cell body soma manufactures cell components Action Potential a neural impulse A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon to the terminal branches Action Potential properties 0 All or None response neuron either res or it doesn39t lntensity an action potential stays the same through the length of the axon Glial Cell cell in the nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood brain barrier responds to injury removed debris enhances learning and memory Terminal Branches release information Synapse the place where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite of another neuron Synaptic Gap the space between two neurons neurons don t quite touch Two Types of Neurotransmitters Excitatory make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons lnhibitory make it less likely that a neuron will send its message Neurotransmitters Serotonin mood and temperature regulation aggression and sleep cycles Dopamine motor function and reward Glutamate main excitatory neurotransmitter participates in relay of sensory information and learning GABA main inhibitory neurotransmitter Norepinephrine brain arousal mood hunger and sleep Anandamide pain reduction increase in appetite Acetylcholine muscle contraction PNS cortical arousal CNS Dopamine motor function and reward Endorphins type of neurotransmitter involved in pain reduction and reward think of it like an involuntary pain killer Central Nervous System processes interprets stores information issues orders to muscles glands and organs Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System transmits information to and from the CNS Somatic Nervous System controls skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System regulates glands blood vessels internal organs oSympathetic Nervous System mobilizes body for action energy output oParasympathetic Nervous System conserves energy maintains quiet state The Hindbrain Medulla regulates breathing heartbeat and other vital funcUons Pons connects cortex to cerebellum and triggers dreams Cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements and balance allows for certain types of associative learning modulation of emotions discrimination of sounds and textures Thalamus sits on top of the brainstem brain s quotsensory switchboardquot receives sensory input except smell and sends info to specialized regions of the brain The Limbic System Amygdala Tied to emotions such as aggression and fear important in the formation of emotional memories Hippocampus important functions in storing amp retrieving declarative memories differentiate between declarative memories and procedural memories Cerebral Cortex divided into 2 hemispheres left amp right outermost covering of the brain hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum Each hemisphere is divided into four Lobes separated by ssures Frontal Lobe making plans judgments speaking muscle movements Central Sulcus Parietal Lobe registers and processes body sensa ons Occipital Lobe processes visual information Temporal Lobe processes auditory information and some speech oElectroencephalograph EEG measures electrical activity via electrodes placed on skull can tell which regions of the brain are active during speci c tasks oBrain Scans CT and MRI structure of the brain PET Scans changes in brain activity fMRl Studies use blood oxygenation levels to visualize brain activity Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS applies strong and quickly changing magnetic elds to the surface of the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function allows casual determination of functioning Magnetoencephalography MEG measures tiny magnetic elds generated by the brain Nature genes vs Nurture environment 0 Nature DNA gt Cells gt Organs Ex High cortisol levels stress hormones more likely to experience anxiety Nurture concerns how our experience environment affects behavior Behavioral Genetics Heritability percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes Psychologists have been able to breed rats that are predisposed to be serene or reactive quick or slow learners
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