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by: heatherzim84

punishment PSYCH 473

Penn State Harrisburg
GPA 3.82

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About this Document

Will be included on next midterm exam. - chapter 13 notes
Behavior Modification
Kimberly A. Schreck, Ph.D.
Class Notes
Behavior Modification, Psychology, punishment, reinforcement, overcorrection, negative punishment, timeout, response cost
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by heatherzim84 on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 473 at Penn State Harrisburg taught by Kimberly A. Schreck, Ph.D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Behavior Modification in Psychlogy at Penn State Harrisburg.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Behavior modification chapter 13  Principle of punishment o Punisher: stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behavior  causes that behavior to decrease in frequency (aversive stimuli or  aversives) o Punishment: If, in a given situation, someone does something that is  immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is less likely to do  the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation  Types of punishers o Pain­inducing punisher: (physical punisher) activates pain receptors or  other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort –  unconditioned punishers (without prior learning) o Reprimand: strong, negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on  behavior – conditioned punishers o Timeout: period of time immediately following a particular behavior during  which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers – 2 types:  exclusionary timeout – removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing  situation immediately following a behavior; non­exclusionary timeout –  introducing into the situation, immediately following a behavior, a stimulus  associated with less reinforcement o Response cost: removal of a specified amount of a reinforce immediately  following a behavior, usually in token economy reinforcers  Direct­acting effect: decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences  Indirect­acting effect: weakening of a response that is followed by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed  Factors influencing effectiveness of punishment o Conditions for a desirable alternative response o Cause of the undesirable behavior o The punishing stimulus o Antecedents (including verbal rules) for punishment o Delivery of punisher  Punisher should be presented immediately following undesirable  behavior  Punisher should be presented following every instance of  undesirable behavior  Delivery of the punisher should not be paired with positive reinforce  Person administering punisher should remain calm when doing so  Therapeutic punishment o Deliberate use of punishment as a treatment strategy  Potential harmful side effects of punishment o Aggressive behavior o Emotional behavior o Escape and avoidance behavior o No new behavior o Modeling of punishment o Overuse of punishment  Only provide punishment when: o Behavior is very maladaptive and it’s in the client’s best interest to bring  about rapid behavior change o Clear steps are taken to maximize conditions for a desirable alternative  response and to minimize causes of the response to be punished before  resorting to punishment o Client or their parent/guardian provides informed consent o Intervention meets ethical standards o Punishment is applied according to clear guidelines o Program includes safeguards to protect client  Guidelines for effective application of punishment o Select a response o Maximize conditions for a desirable (non­punished) alternative response o Minimize causes of the response to be punished o Select an effective punisher o Present clear S sp o Deliver the punisher o Take data Response blocking­ “block” the response Contingent exercise Overcorrection­  Overcorrect the environmental effects of misbehavior Restitutional overcorrection (restore environment above and beyond  misbehavior) Practice appropriate forms of behavior (positive practice) Positive practice (repeat proper behavior) Negative punishment (removing stimulus following behavior to decrease likelihood of  behavior occurring) Response cost Time­out Example: EO S D Respons SR­ Result e Child participates  Adult asks to  Child  Time out  Poking a buddy occurs  in classroom  open books  pokes his (peer  less often in the futures  buddy activities  but read the  buddy attention  when the teacher gives  where attention  first  is  classroom instructions  from peers  paragraph to  removed) and peer buddies are  (positive reinforce) your buddy available is available Types of timeout: Exclusionary  Removal of a person from the environment in which reinforcement is available  Separate “timeout” room, a partition separating the person from the environment, or  removal to a hallway, staircase, etc. Non­exclusionary   Allow the person to remain in the environment where reinforcement is available to  others  Not permitted to engage in reinforcing activities  Withdrawal of specific reinforcers (e.g. Taking away access to a preferred toy),  sitting in a corner of the room, or a ribbon worn on the wrist Consideration when using timeout from reinforcement­ do not use for escape behavior,  consider size and compliance of person, safety Desirable aspects of timeout  Ease of applications (especially non­exclusionary timeout)  Acceptability (especially non­exclusionary timeout)  Rapid suppression of problem behavior  Easily combined with other procedures, such as differential reinforcement  Response cost  Removal of a specified amount of reinforce following a behavior  Library fines, traffic tickets, loss of tokens, etc. Example: EO SD Response S R­ Result Child has 15  Adult says lets  Child pokes his 5 minutes of  Poking his  minutes of  open our  buddy the recess time buddy occurs  recess of  books and  is removed less often in  schedule every read paragraph the future  morning to buddy when teacher  gives  instruction and  recess is  available Desirable aspects of response cost  Produces rapid decrease in the target behavior  Convenient and easy to implement (can be incorporated into existing token or  allowance programs)  Is easily combined with other approaches (such as differential reinforcement) Example: + R   tennis, video games Increase doing homework AND decrease not handing in homework (combining  programs) If you hand in all your homework for the week, you can get half hour of video games  2 weeks, 1 hour, etc. AND no tennis until your grades are brought up BUT wasn’t receiving any grades from the teachers  If you spend 1 hour of studying and do homework for each class, you can get tennis for  the next day AND for every assignment not handed in, must complete a double assignment at home SO combining differential reinforcement and response cost programs Methods of response cost  Direct fine  Bonus response cost  Combined with positive reinforcement  Group arrangements Effective use of response cost  Specifically define the target behaviors that will result in response cost, as well as  the fines  Establish rules for refusals  Greater fines should be associated with more sever forms of problem behavior – be  cautious of making fines so great that the individual becomes “bankrupt” ********Factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment*********  Immediacy of punishment  Intensity of punishment  Schedule or frequency of punishment = continuous  Availability of reinforcement for the target behavior  Availability of reinforcement for an alternative behavior Side effects of punishment  Aggressive behavior  Crying  Increase in behavior in non­punishment conditions  People become conditioned punishers (escape & avoidance)  Doesn’t establish a new behavior  Modeling/imitation +  Abuse: can tempt disregard of R


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