Penn State Harrisburg
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by heatherzim84 on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 473 at Penn State Harrisburg taught by Kimberly A. Schreck, Ph.D. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Behavior Modification in Psychlogy at Penn State Harrisburg.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Behavior modification chapter 13 Principle of punishment o Punisher: stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behavior causes that behavior to decrease in frequency (aversive stimuli or aversives) o Punishment: If, in a given situation, someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is less likely to do the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation Types of punishers o Paininducing punisher: (physical punisher) activates pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort – unconditioned punishers (without prior learning) o Reprimand: strong, negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behavior – conditioned punishers o Timeout: period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers – 2 types: exclusionary timeout – removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behavior; nonexclusionary timeout – introducing into the situation, immediately following a behavior, a stimulus associated with less reinforcement o Response cost: removal of a specified amount of a reinforce immediately following a behavior, usually in token economy reinforcers Directacting effect: decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences Indirectacting effect: weakening of a response that is followed by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed Factors influencing effectiveness of punishment o Conditions for a desirable alternative response o Cause of the undesirable behavior o The punishing stimulus o Antecedents (including verbal rules) for punishment o Delivery of punisher Punisher should be presented immediately following undesirable behavior Punisher should be presented following every instance of undesirable behavior Delivery of the punisher should not be paired with positive reinforce Person administering punisher should remain calm when doing so Therapeutic punishment o Deliberate use of punishment as a treatment strategy Potential harmful side effects of punishment o Aggressive behavior o Emotional behavior o Escape and avoidance behavior o No new behavior o Modeling of punishment o Overuse of punishment Only provide punishment when: o Behavior is very maladaptive and it’s in the client’s best interest to bring about rapid behavior change o Clear steps are taken to maximize conditions for a desirable alternative response and to minimize causes of the response to be punished before resorting to punishment o Client or their parent/guardian provides informed consent o Intervention meets ethical standards o Punishment is applied according to clear guidelines o Program includes safeguards to protect client Guidelines for effective application of punishment o Select a response o Maximize conditions for a desirable (nonpunished) alternative response o Minimize causes of the response to be punished o Select an effective punisher o Present clear S sp o Deliver the punisher o Take data Response blocking “block” the response Contingent exercise Overcorrection Overcorrect the environmental effects of misbehavior Restitutional overcorrection (restore environment above and beyond misbehavior) Practice appropriate forms of behavior (positive practice) Positive practice (repeat proper behavior) Negative punishment (removing stimulus following behavior to decrease likelihood of behavior occurring) Response cost Timeout Example: EO S D Respons SR Result e Child participates Adult asks to Child Time out Poking a buddy occurs in classroom open books pokes his (peer less often in the futures buddy activities but read the buddy attention when the teacher gives where attention first is classroom instructions from peers paragraph to removed) and peer buddies are (positive reinforce) your buddy available is available Types of timeout: Exclusionary Removal of a person from the environment in which reinforcement is available Separate “timeout” room, a partition separating the person from the environment, or removal to a hallway, staircase, etc. Nonexclusionary Allow the person to remain in the environment where reinforcement is available to others Not permitted to engage in reinforcing activities Withdrawal of specific reinforcers (e.g. Taking away access to a preferred toy), sitting in a corner of the room, or a ribbon worn on the wrist Consideration when using timeout from reinforcement do not use for escape behavior, consider size and compliance of person, safety Desirable aspects of timeout Ease of applications (especially nonexclusionary timeout) Acceptability (especially nonexclusionary timeout) Rapid suppression of problem behavior Easily combined with other procedures, such as differential reinforcement Response cost Removal of a specified amount of reinforce following a behavior Library fines, traffic tickets, loss of tokens, etc. Example: EO SD Response S R Result Child has 15 Adult says lets Child pokes his 5 minutes of Poking his minutes of open our buddy the recess time buddy occurs recess of books and is removed less often in schedule every read paragraph the future morning to buddy when teacher gives instruction and recess is available Desirable aspects of response cost Produces rapid decrease in the target behavior Convenient and easy to implement (can be incorporated into existing token or allowance programs) Is easily combined with other approaches (such as differential reinforcement) Example: + R tennis, video games Increase doing homework AND decrease not handing in homework (combining programs) If you hand in all your homework for the week, you can get half hour of video games 2 weeks, 1 hour, etc. AND no tennis until your grades are brought up BUT wasn’t receiving any grades from the teachers If you spend 1 hour of studying and do homework for each class, you can get tennis for the next day AND for every assignment not handed in, must complete a double assignment at home SO combining differential reinforcement and response cost programs Methods of response cost Direct fine Bonus response cost Combined with positive reinforcement Group arrangements Effective use of response cost Specifically define the target behaviors that will result in response cost, as well as the fines Establish rules for refusals Greater fines should be associated with more sever forms of problem behavior – be cautious of making fines so great that the individual becomes “bankrupt” ********Factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment********* Immediacy of punishment Intensity of punishment Schedule or frequency of punishment = continuous Availability of reinforcement for the target behavior Availability of reinforcement for an alternative behavior Side effects of punishment Aggressive behavior Crying Increase in behavior in nonpunishment conditions People become conditioned punishers (escape & avoidance) Doesn’t establish a new behavior Modeling/imitation + Abuse: can tempt disregard of R
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