World War I (part 2)
World War I (part 2) Hist1020
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Dean on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/22/16 WORLD WAR I (part 2) I. Strategies In 1905, the German put together the Schlieffen Plan which was their military plan to avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out France really fast, then set their sights on Russia. Germany planned to attack France from the north, which was unexpected because that would violate Belgian neutrality and swarm and overtake Paris. This plan didn’t in large part of the new technology developed. The First Battle of the Marne (1914) boggs down and starts the military tactic of trench warfare where armies would take shelter in trenches they dug and when it was time to attack, go “over the top” and try to rush the opposing army’s trench while running through no-man’s-land with mines, barbed wire, and machine guns. This also began a war of attrition where there’s no movement by the armies, just dig in the trenches and try to outlast the other army. The Battle of Verdun (1916), fought on the western front, was where the Germans tried to defeat the French with an overwhelming amount of artillery. This battle was the attempt to break away from the constant stalemate of trench warfare but it didn’t work. 700,000 people died in that battle. Somme River-- 60,000 British die in a day. The best time to be in the trenches was dead of winter when everything is frozen because in the spring everything melted and people would have to trudge in mud up to their armpits. Many soldiers were lost to exposure, drowning in mud, disease, etc. If the war of attrition (stalemate) was ever going to break, new allies had to be made. The United States came into the war in 1917 because of German U-boats (submarines). The Germans sunk the British ocean liner Lusitania with 139 Americans on board. This outraged the US and they told the Germans to stop submarine warfare. They did until January 1917 and that’s when the US joined. New fronts were introduced with the Ottoman Empire and the battle of Gallipoli where many British, Australian, and New Zealand soldiers died. This battle was used by the Triple Alliance as a distraction. The Triple Entente came back with a distraction for the Ottoman Empire by using T.E. Lawrence to stir up nationalism in the Middle East to divert the Ottomans. Tanks were used/introduced in WWI to cross no-mans-land. Planes were introduced a little but wouldn’t play a huge role in this war. But the big-ticket item was chemical warfare. It was tricky to use with the wind for fear that the gas would blow back into their own trench. They used tear gas, chlorine gas that slowly asphyxiated the soldier, and mustard gas that would eat away tissue in a soldier’s lungs and organs. All of these were slow, painful, excruciating deaths. Russia was in the midst of a revolution during WWI and in 1917 they pulled out. In November of 1917 the war ended. Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/22/16 The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that settled WWI. The Entente was mad at the whole war. France insisted on a “war guilt” clause where France blamed Germany for everything about WWI (deaths, destruction, etc.).The terms were that Germany had to 1. Pay huge amounts of money to the Entente allies, 2. Demilitarize (they could keep 100,000 troops), 3. Give France the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, 4. The nation of Poland was reconstituted, 5. And in the Balkans, a pan-slavic state was created—Yugoslavia. Effects of the war: -Loss of life- 7-10 million -France lost 50% of their 20-30 year old males -Many colonials fought in the war and didn’t get repercussions - Women during the war worked in factories but when the men came home, women got booted back into the home. Sparked the women’s rights movement. -Psychological impact: The lost generation- the war time generation that was lost either by physical death or went insane from the harsh conditions of the war -Fascism- during war time, people turn to their governments to regulate economy and basically take over the country.
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