Book Notes Chapter One
Book Notes Chapter One PSYC1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fayth Darnell on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Shyan-Norwalt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 283 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Discovering Psychology The Science of Mind Cacioppo and Freberg Chapter 1 The Discipline of Psychology The study of mind is a way of talking about the brain and it s activities Psychology is the study of the mind the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior is any observable action human or animal lntrospection the act of observing one s own thoughts feelings and behaviors does not really work well with the scientific method ideas contradict eachother and under what circumstances are different ideas and beliefs correct Philosophy and Physical Siences came together in the 1870 s to make Psychology Human behavior is caused by a balance of both nature and nurture biological factors vs enviornmental factors Plato WHAT IS THE STUDY OF THE MIND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY AND MIND 3 PARTS MUST BE IN BALANCE REASONSPIRITAPPETITE Freud ID aggresive and sexual impulses EGO self SUPEREGO conscience Dualism mind and body are seperate entities body is physical and the mind is a mystery Monism mind is a result of bodily activity brain Democritus and Aristotle monism Pythagoras Socrates Plato dualism MIND AND BODY INFLUENCE EACH OTHER Empiricists mind was a blank slate at birth that was filled with ideas gained by observing the world EXPERIENCE Descartes and Locke Comptemporary question mind as a result of inborn characteristics and experiences 5OOBC brain was concluded to be the organ of thinking and understanding memory and sensory connections New technology has enabled scientists to make new important dicoveries about the human mind including that single sensory nerves carry information to sensory organs such as the eyes instead of multiple sensory organs Helmholtz studied the speed of nerve signaling behavior is not instantaneous Fechner studied the softest sound in which a person can hear 50 Wundt considered the first experimental psychologist studied reaction time goal of psych was to understand consiousness seperate sensations and their emotional responses Structuralism the mind is made up of building blocks of perception KoffkaWerthimerKohler GESTALT PSYCH believed that structuralism would result in a loss of important information on why conlcusions are led to Functionalism behavior is important to survival William James stream of consiousness and the rolde of evolution in psychology Behaviorism observable and measurable behaviors assumed things about human behavior based on animalistic behavior Pavlov Conditioning response association to anticipate future responses in behavior emotional responses are cued through conditioning by enviornmental factors Watson restricted psychology to the study of observable behaior Thorndyke behavior was a result of functionalism pleasant outcomes cause behaviors to occur again in the future negative responses cause the behavior to not occur in the future trial and error learning Skinner rats and pigeon experiments in the skinner boxes Cognition information processing thinking reasoning problem solving Cognitive Psychology Neisser LANGUAGE Skinner language was learned through conditioning and feedback from the parental figure Chomsky born with an innate ability to learn language Medical Model for Psychological Dlsorders causes of behavior and treatment with medication Psychological Model abnormal behaviors result from experiences leading to fear anxiety and other negatice responses These Modelsquot are comtemporarily put together to explain disorders and to find the most effective treatment Freud psychodymanic theory roots of abnormal behavior and the unconcious personality including dream interpretation study of personality did no real experimentation and patients wre upper class Viennese housewives not general population psychoanalysis is rarely ever conducted in a strict Freudian manner Humanistic humans have to be taught to be good and have the original charactristics of an animal Maslow motivation through selfactualization Rogers clientcentered therapy people are given the same standing as their therapists communication through a political process is important different perspectives are needed to explain psychology Biological Psychology relationships between biological and neurological factors and behavior brain and behavior Evolutionary Psychology how behavior is shaped to survive Why a behavior is standing because it has provided an advantage in surviving through ancestors Cognitive Psychology thinking and processing information Social Psychology how culture affects the behavior of individuals Devlopmental Psychology normal changes in behaviors across the lifespan Clinical Psychology defining and treating abnormal behaviors Individual differences cause variations in personality Work of a Psychologist School 8 Business and Government 21 Clinical 37 Higher Education 32 Other 2
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