New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

HIST 225 Week 9 Notes

by: Kira Gavalakis

HIST 225 Week 9 Notes HIST 225 0021

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes for Tuesday, March 15 and Thursday, March 17
U.S. History
Richard Meixsel
Class Notes
HIST225, history, American History, U.S. History, US History, General Education, midterm, Study Guide
25 ?




Popular in U.S. History

Popular in History

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


Reviews for HIST 225 Week 9 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/07/16
T3/15/16 Tuesday The Industrial Revolution in America (began 1760) ● US is the world’s most Industrial Society by 1900­ exceeds Germany, Great  Britain and France  ● US is greatest power of the world in the 1900s! ● Richest man during Industrial Era­ Andrew Carnegie ○ Strict rules in the steel plant (Pittsburg) ○ Encouraged competition ○ Dehumanized workers ● Industrialization­ substitution of machine power for human and animal power  and the breakdown of production into a series of specialized and routine tasks. ○ Demand for cotton cloth ○ Need a reliable, consistent source of power­ COAL ● Cotton textile industry­ dyeing cotton ● Need trade school *Industrialization drives urbanization* 1760­ when George III became King of England ● Begins in the US in 1790s­ after the Civil War Industrialization: Why Now? 1. Communications Revolution a. The importance of the Railroad 2. Technological Innovation a. To 1860, 36,000 patents had been issued b. From 1860 to 1890, 440,000 were issued 3. Raw Materials­ Why the west was handy (Japan was also Industrializing like  America) 4. Favorable legislation (federal, state and local legislation generous to big  businesses) 5. Large internal market (large free­trade market, no trade barriers between states) 6. Large labor pool­­ the “new” European immigrants (after Civil War in the 1870s­ 1914, found work in new industrial centers in east and west) ***READ IN TEXTBOOK Vertical Integration ● Purchase or grow raw materials → Transport materials to factory → Fabricate these into goods → Retail products to customers Gustavus Swift (meatpacking industry) Bought cows → Slaughtered them (i.e. The Jungle) → Transported meat in refrigerated cars → owns warehouses → Markets beef to stores and consumers United Fruit Company, 1899 Owned banana- growing lands in Central America→ Rails to carry bananas to the port → ships (the “Great White Fleet”) to US → National Network of warehouses and wholesalers ­ And Advertising Industry began Horizontal Integration ● As more firms produce more of the same good, supply will exceed demand and  prices will drop below production costs, so… 1. Cutthroat competition 2. The Cartel, or Trade Association 3. The Trust Example of Horizontal Integration ● John D. Rockefeller  ○ Formed the Standard Oil Company (1867) ­­ ROCK OIL (as  opposed to whale oil) ○ National Refiners Association (1872) ○ Pioneered the “Horizontally Integrated” firm (aka the “trust”­­ 1882) ○ 1859­ first drilled in Pennsylvania ● Overabundance of oil, so… 1. Cutthroat competition 2. The Cartel, or Trade Association (became illegal) 3. The Trust Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Steel ● Acquired sources for coal, iron ore → steamship sleet and rails to carry raw materials to steel plant ● “From the moment these crude stuffs were dug out of the earth until they flowed  in a stream of liquid steel in the ladles, there was never a price, profit, or royalty paid to  an outsider.” J.H. Bridge, Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company (1903) Trends In Industrial America 1. Population tripled from 1860­1910 2. Percentage of the population living in urban areas went from 20%­40% from  1860­1900 3. Manufacturing production expanded by 12.5 times, 1860­1914 4. By 1880s, farmers constituted less than one half the country’s labor force. The  last federal census that put a majority of the workforce in agriculture was 1870. ● A lot of industrial workforce was immigrants ○ 1820­1879 (59 years) US got 8.5 million immigrants from Europe ○ 1880­1914 (34 years) US got 20 million immigrants from Europe ○ Formed the majority of the laboring class Immigrants and their children in the populations of major cities (1920) NYC­ 76% Cleveland­ 72% Boston­ 72% Chicago­ 71% Detroit­ 65% Minneapolis­ 63% Male Employees by Nationality and Industry (1907) Iron and Steel­ 58% foreign born Sewing Machine Manufacture­ 59% foreign born Agriculture­ 59% foreign born Oil Refining­ 67% foreign born Meatpacking­ 61% foreign born “New Immigration”­ instead of coming from Northern and Western Europe, but now from  Eastern and Southern Europe in 1880 ● Majority southern Italy and Sicily, Poland Industrialization created WEALTH Except for the factory workers… ● Population in increasing ● Cities were very dirty along with the crowded tenements and apartments in  1900s ● Many people injured by fires Thursday Triangle Fire (1911) Killed 150 women and girls ● Bills passed by Congress to help UNION Army Veterans in need/asking for money→ Biggest expenditures from the Federal Government! ● Machine politicians (local government) would give you money, jobs, items, health to people who voted for them, but they didn’t think about long­term help that these  governments wouldn’t give them What to do? 1. Don’t ask the Feds for help ^ a. Social darwinism­ justified not helping people­ natural selection  (survival of the fittest) ACCUMULATED WEALTH was the best determination of  fitness ***READ IN TEXTBOOK vvv 2. Socialism a. Socialist Labor Party organized by Daniel De Leon (1877) b. Most successful socialist party: Socialist Party of America  organized by Eugene V. Debs, 1901 i. At its height, in the 1912 presidential election, Debs won 6% of the vote William Graham Sumner ● Government action interfered with evolution­ they shouldn’t get involved ● What Social Classes Owe to Each Other­ A: NOTHING! c. Was popular in Europe d. Socialist: Public ownership of the means of production e. Industrialization caused wealth… but in the upper class who kept  it for themselves­ socialism means distributing the wealth 3. Labor Unions a. Promised immediate results b. Terrence Powderly and the “Knights of Labor” i. Founded in 1869, secretive union that eventually  goes public and attracts 700,000 workers c. Sought to unite all working men­­ and even women! d. The wage system­­ Finnerty’s document as a brass worker e. Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor (1886) i. Organized the more skilled labor, more likely the  company would listen f. Emphasized organizing more skilled labor g. Focused on bread and butter issues h. Not many people were a part of unions­­ to many problems Problems of Labor Organizing ● Ethnic diversity ○ There was a pecking order in the factories ● Too many unskilled workers? ○ Wanted to move up in the company, so why risk that to join the  union? ● Legal power of industry ○ Didn’t let workers do many things, saying that lowering work hours is Unconstitutional and “restricts trade” ● Labor violence ○ Violence turned workers against the labor organizations ● Most people expected to get ahead in America? ○ Didn’t want to get caught up in this if they wanted to move up People did move up in the workforce: general acceptance of the labor system that reduced the  appeal of labor unions Immigrants could be moved up to managerial positions Horatio Alger, Jr. ● Author for young boys The Populist Movement (Movement of the agrarian (farmer) workforce for political power) ● 1607­1870­­ 408 million acres cultivated ● 1871­1900­­ additional 431 million additional acres of land cultivated (soil) ● Even in Industrialization, Urbanization, still ½ of the workforce worked in  agriculture ○ Significant part of the economy ● Agricultural workers moving towards the West in 1870s and 1880s and using the  Railroads to transport their goods demanded by the East and International markets ● Picture: if you built a house on the land, you could claim more land­­ father build  each of his daughters houses so he could get more land What is the problem? Many are failing as farmers! Why? 1. Overproduction­­ too many people trying to do the same thing? a. Wheat Prices: 1870== 254 million bushels, $1.04 each 1878­ 449 million bushels, $0.77 each 1892­ 612 million bushels, $0.62 each 1898­ 768 million bushels, $0.58 each Same trend for cotton, still the major crop grown in the south 2. Exploitation by big businesses and the railroads? 3. Loss of status­ system is unfair Finally, by the late 1880s, a decision to turn to politics… Politics of the “Gilded Age” ***READ IN TEXTBOOK ● Exuberant, enthusiastic participation in national elections (80 percent turnout) but what were the issues? ● Presidential elections narrowly won (time and time again, one candidate won  about 51% of the vote; the other 49%) ● “Era of forgotten presidents” ○ Didn’t matter who the president was ○ “Era of Forgotten Presidents”: ***READ IN TEXTBOOK Rutherford B. Hayes ● Elected 1876 ● Didn’t win on popular vote ● He can be president James Garfield ● assassinated Chester Arthur ● Kidney disease and died MEMORIZE: Grover Cleveland ● Elected 1884 ● Different from the others: 1. Democrat 2. Divided term in office (elected once, and then again in 1892) Benjamin Harrison Grover Cleveland ● Elected 1892 People would vote based on one or two reasons, not because of their view on the economy Populist Party Platform 1. Nationalization of Railroads 2. Land and natural resources protected from monopoly 3. Graduated income tax 4. Popular election of senators, initiative, referendum a. Elected by state legislators, not the people 5. Sub­treasury scheme a. Store produce, wheat, cotton in government warehouses so you  could store them until their value goes up 6. Free coinage of silver a. Increase money supply b. Money didn’t circulate much in America 7. 8­hour day for industrial workers­­ and end immigration to reduce the labor force  and enhance value of labor


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.