HIST 225 Week 9 Notes
HIST 225 Week 9 Notes HIST 225 0021
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
T3/15/16 Tuesday The Industrial Revolution in America (began 1760) ● US is the world’s most Industrial Society by 1900 exceeds Germany, Great Britain and France ● US is greatest power of the world in the 1900s! ● Richest man during Industrial Era Andrew Carnegie ○ Strict rules in the steel plant (Pittsburg) ○ Encouraged competition ○ Dehumanized workers ● Industrialization substitution of machine power for human and animal power and the breakdown of production into a series of specialized and routine tasks. ○ Demand for cotton cloth ○ Need a reliable, consistent source of power COAL ● Cotton textile industry dyeing cotton ● Need trade school *Industrialization drives urbanization* 1760 when George III became King of England ● Begins in the US in 1790s after the Civil War Industrialization: Why Now? 1. Communications Revolution a. The importance of the Railroad 2. Technological Innovation a. To 1860, 36,000 patents had been issued b. From 1860 to 1890, 440,000 were issued 3. Raw Materials Why the west was handy (Japan was also Industrializing like America) 4. Favorable legislation (federal, state and local legislation generous to big businesses) 5. Large internal market (large freetrade market, no trade barriers between states) 6. Large labor pool the “new” European immigrants (after Civil War in the 1870s 1914, found work in new industrial centers in east and west) ***READ IN TEXTBOOK Vertical Integration ● Purchase or grow raw materials → Transport materials to factory → Fabricate these into goods → Retail products to customers Gustavus Swift (meatpacking industry) Bought cows → Slaughtered them (i.e. The Jungle) → Transported meat in refrigerated cars → owns warehouses → Markets beef to stores and consumers United Fruit Company, 1899 Owned banana- growing lands in Central America→ Rails to carry bananas to the port → ships (the “Great White Fleet”) to US → National Network of warehouses and wholesalers And Advertising Industry began Horizontal Integration ● As more firms produce more of the same good, supply will exceed demand and prices will drop below production costs, so… 1. Cutthroat competition 2. The Cartel, or Trade Association 3. The Trust Example of Horizontal Integration ● John D. Rockefeller ○ Formed the Standard Oil Company (1867) ROCK OIL (as opposed to whale oil) ○ National Refiners Association (1872) ○ Pioneered the “Horizontally Integrated” firm (aka the “trust” 1882) ○ 1859 first drilled in Pennsylvania ● Overabundance of oil, so… 1. Cutthroat competition 2. The Cartel, or Trade Association (became illegal) 3. The Trust Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Steel ● Acquired sources for coal, iron ore → steamship sleet and rails to carry raw materials to steel plant ● “From the moment these crude stuffs were dug out of the earth until they flowed in a stream of liquid steel in the ladles, there was never a price, profit, or royalty paid to an outsider.” J.H. Bridge, Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company (1903) Trends In Industrial America 1. Population tripled from 18601910 2. Percentage of the population living in urban areas went from 20%40% from 18601900 3. Manufacturing production expanded by 12.5 times, 18601914 4. By 1880s, farmers constituted less than one half the country’s labor force. The last federal census that put a majority of the workforce in agriculture was 1870. ● A lot of industrial workforce was immigrants ○ 18201879 (59 years) US got 8.5 million immigrants from Europe ○ 18801914 (34 years) US got 20 million immigrants from Europe ○ Formed the majority of the laboring class Immigrants and their children in the populations of major cities (1920) NYC 76% Cleveland 72% Boston 72% Chicago 71% Detroit 65% Minneapolis 63% Male Employees by Nationality and Industry (1907) Iron and Steel 58% foreign born Sewing Machine Manufacture 59% foreign born Agriculture 59% foreign born Oil Refining 67% foreign born Meatpacking 61% foreign born “New Immigration” instead of coming from Northern and Western Europe, but now from Eastern and Southern Europe in 1880 ● Majority southern Italy and Sicily, Poland Industrialization created WEALTH Except for the factory workers… ● Population in increasing ● Cities were very dirty along with the crowded tenements and apartments in 1900s ● Many people injured by fires Thursday Triangle Fire (1911) Killed 150 women and girls ● Bills passed by Congress to help UNION Army Veterans in need/asking for money→ Biggest expenditures from the Federal Government! ● Machine politicians (local government) would give you money, jobs, items, health to people who voted for them, but they didn’t think about longterm help that these governments wouldn’t give them What to do? 1. Don’t ask the Feds for help ^ a. Social darwinism justified not helping people natural selection (survival of the fittest) ACCUMULATED WEALTH was the best determination of fitness ***READ IN TEXTBOOK vvv 2. Socialism a. Socialist Labor Party organized by Daniel De Leon (1877) b. Most successful socialist party: Socialist Party of America organized by Eugene V. Debs, 1901 i. At its height, in the 1912 presidential election, Debs won 6% of the vote William Graham Sumner ● Government action interfered with evolution they shouldn’t get involved ● What Social Classes Owe to Each Other A: NOTHING! c. Was popular in Europe d. Socialist: Public ownership of the means of production e. Industrialization caused wealth… but in the upper class who kept it for themselves socialism means distributing the wealth 3. Labor Unions a. Promised immediate results b. Terrence Powderly and the “Knights of Labor” i. Founded in 1869, secretive union that eventually goes public and attracts 700,000 workers c. Sought to unite all working men and even women! d. The wage system Finnerty’s document as a brass worker e. Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor (1886) i. Organized the more skilled labor, more likely the company would listen f. Emphasized organizing more skilled labor g. Focused on bread and butter issues h. Not many people were a part of unions to many problems Problems of Labor Organizing ● Ethnic diversity ○ There was a pecking order in the factories ● Too many unskilled workers? ○ Wanted to move up in the company, so why risk that to join the union? ● Legal power of industry ○ Didn’t let workers do many things, saying that lowering work hours is Unconstitutional and “restricts trade” ● Labor violence ○ Violence turned workers against the labor organizations ● Most people expected to get ahead in America? ○ Didn’t want to get caught up in this if they wanted to move up People did move up in the workforce: general acceptance of the labor system that reduced the appeal of labor unions Immigrants could be moved up to managerial positions Horatio Alger, Jr. ● Author for young boys The Populist Movement (Movement of the agrarian (farmer) workforce for political power) ● 16071870 408 million acres cultivated ● 18711900 additional 431 million additional acres of land cultivated (soil) ● Even in Industrialization, Urbanization, still ½ of the workforce worked in agriculture ○ Significant part of the economy ● Agricultural workers moving towards the West in 1870s and 1880s and using the Railroads to transport their goods demanded by the East and International markets ● Picture: if you built a house on the land, you could claim more land father build each of his daughters houses so he could get more land What is the problem? Many are failing as farmers! Why? 1. Overproduction too many people trying to do the same thing? a. Wheat Prices: 1870== 254 million bushels, $1.04 each 1878 449 million bushels, $0.77 each 1892 612 million bushels, $0.62 each 1898 768 million bushels, $0.58 each Same trend for cotton, still the major crop grown in the south 2. Exploitation by big businesses and the railroads? 3. Loss of status system is unfair Finally, by the late 1880s, a decision to turn to politics… Politics of the “Gilded Age” ***READ IN TEXTBOOK ● Exuberant, enthusiastic participation in national elections (80 percent turnout) but what were the issues? ● Presidential elections narrowly won (time and time again, one candidate won about 51% of the vote; the other 49%) ● “Era of forgotten presidents” ○ Didn’t matter who the president was ○ “Era of Forgotten Presidents”: ***READ IN TEXTBOOK Rutherford B. Hayes ● Elected 1876 ● Didn’t win on popular vote ● He can be president James Garfield ● assassinated Chester Arthur ● Kidney disease and died MEMORIZE: Grover Cleveland ● Elected 1884 ● Different from the others: 1. Democrat 2. Divided term in office (elected once, and then again in 1892) Benjamin Harrison Grover Cleveland ● Elected 1892 People would vote based on one or two reasons, not because of their view on the economy Populist Party Platform 1. Nationalization of Railroads 2. Land and natural resources protected from monopoly 3. Graduated income tax 4. Popular election of senators, initiative, referendum a. Elected by state legislators, not the people 5. Subtreasury scheme a. Store produce, wheat, cotton in government warehouses so you could store them until their value goes up 6. Free coinage of silver a. Increase money supply b. Money didn’t circulate much in America 7. 8hour day for industrial workers and end immigration to reduce the labor force and enhance value of labor