Bio 103 Human Anatomy Brain Structures and Functions Part 1
Bio 103 Human Anatomy Brain Structures and Functions Part 1 Biology 103
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
The Brain Structures and Functions Part 1 Major Landmarks on the Outside 1.Cerebrum o Cerebral Hemispheres, 2 half circles o Gyri= Ridges o Sulci= Grooves o Longitudinal Fissure= Big sulcus (groove) that dives the two hemispheres o Central Sulcus= Divides the brain in a frontal plane 2.Cerebellum= “Little Brain” that is behind the cerebrum and is the second largest part of the brain 3.Brainstem- Keeps the body alive automatically. Is in charge of breathing and heart rate Gray Matter= Outer portion of the cortex o Superficial o Neuron cell bodies o Dendrites o Synapses o Cortex and nuclei are on the outside of the brain. The nuclei make up most of the gray matter White Matter= Deeper than the gray matter o Deep o Tracts made up of bundles of axons o Myelinated Meninges 1.Dura Mater o Surrounds the brain and attaches it to the skull (located in the crista galli, sella turcica, and sutures) o Protects the brain o Forms blood sinuses, which is connective tissue that blood runs through 2 Layers of the Dura Mater o Periosteal Layer o Meningeal Layer Subdural Space= Between the dura and arachnoid Dural Sinus= Contains the superior sagittal sinus, which is a triangle shape Falx Cerebri= Between the cerebral hemispheres’ longitudal fissure Tectorium Cerebelli= Separates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebellum 2.Arachnoid Mater= Contains subarachnoid space and arachnoid villi Subarachnoid Space= Trabeculae suspend the brain and is also space for cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Arachnoid Villi= Where arachnoid mater goes through the dura mater into the superior sagittal sinus 3.Pia Mater= Innermost layer Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) System Found in the circulatory system of the Central Nervous System Many types of circulatory systems are found in the body Clear colorless fluid that is formed in the ventricle lining and choroid plexus in the subarachnoid space of the brain 2 Choroid Plexus= Spongy mass of blood capillaries that are surrounded by ependymal cells. Blood plasma is filtered by capillaries. Found in all ventricles Ventricles= Internal chambers within the brain Canals= Tubes connecting the ventricles Functions of CSF: o Buoyancy- Brain hangs from the trabeculae o Protection- Keeps the brain from hitting the cranium and damaging neurons o Chemical Stability- Takes away waste CSF Flow 1. CSF is secreted by the choroid plexus 2. CSF flows through the interventricula foramina into rd the 3 ventricle 3. Choroid Plexus in the 3 ventricle adds more CSF 4. CSF flows down the cerebral aqueduct to the 4 th ventricle th 5. Choroid Plexus in the 4 ventricle adds more CSF 6. CSF flows out of 2 lateral apertures and 1 median aperture 7. CSF fills subarachnoid space 8. CSF fills arachnoid villi 9. CSF fills superior sagittal sinus Lateral Ventricles (Right/Left ventricles)= Contains interventricular foramen (big holes in the cerebrum) 3rd Ventricle= Has the cerebral aqueduct that lines the thalamus th 4 Ventricle= Has the central canal. Is between 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum Septum Pellucidum= Tissue that separates right and left lateral ventricles. Similar to how the septum of the nose separates the right and left nostrils Arterial System= Goes into brain o Carotid Arteries= Anterior to the brain. Is the pulse by the trachea (windpipe) o Vertebral Arteries= Transverse to the brain 3 o Cerebral Arterial (Circle of Willis)= Circle formed by carotid and vertebral. o If there isn’t enough blood circulation to the brain, a stroke occurs Venous System= Goes out of brain o Mainly sinuses o Superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus o Internal jugular brain Brain Barrier Systems Blood Brain Barrier o Seals blood capillaries in brain tissue o Made up of tight junctions and endothelial cells o Selective to substances passing to the brain o Permeable to water, glucose, oxygen, some drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), and anesthetics o Non permeable to some antibiotics and cancer drugs Regions of the Brain Cerebrum o 83% of brain volume o Source of sensory perception, motor actions, memory, thought, and emotions Lobes o Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital Cerebral Cortex o Covers surfaces of hemispheres o 2-3mm thick o Made up of gray matter, which contains neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses Cerebral White Matter 4 o Projection Tracts= Sends information from the cerebrum to the rest of the body through the spinal cord o Commissural Tracts= Is between hemispheres and in the corpus callosum o Association Tracts= Found in regions of the same hemispheres of commissural tracts o Corpus Callosum= Found above the ventricles. Divides the top part of the brain from the bottom part Basal Nuclei o Masses of cerebral gray matter o Buried deep and lateral to the thalamus o Involved in motor control Limbic System o Important center of emotion and learning o Forms a ring of structures around the thalamus and corpus callosum o Most medications work on the limbic system 5
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