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Date Created: 08/04/14
Personality 52514 352 PM WHAT IS PERSONALITY Personality distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a person39s responses to life situations I Three characteristics 0 Seen as behavioral component of identity distinguish one person from other people 0 Caused by internal rather than environmental factors 0 Have organization and structure THE PSYCHODYNAM IC PERSPECTIVE Freud39s psychoanalytic Theory I Structure of Personality 0 Id innermost core only structure present at birth source of all psychic energy I pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities o ego direct contact with reality and functions primarily at a conscious level I reality principle testing reality to decide when and under what conditions the id safely discharges its impulses and satisfy its needs 0 superego moral arm I Conflict Anxiety and Defense 0 Defense mechanism unconscious mental operations that deny or distort reality I Repression the ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety arousing memories feelings and impulses from entering consciousness I Sublimation taboo impulses may even be channeled into socially desirable and admirable behaviors completely masking the sinister underlying impulses I Psychosexual Development 0 Psychosexual stages id39s peasure seeking tendencies are focused on specific peasure sensitive areas of the body the erogenous zones I Oral stage during infancy sef indugence or dependency as adult I Anal stage OCD and insistence on rules and rituals or messy and dominant I Phallic stage castration anxiety 393 Oedipus complex conflictual situation involving love for the mother and hostility toward the mother 393 Electra complex female counterpart I Latency stage dormant sexuality for 6 yrs I Genital stage erotic impulses find direct expression in sexual relationship Fixation state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme Regression a psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage Neoanalytic and Object Relations Approaches Neoanalytic theorists psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud39s thinking and developed their own theories Alfred Adler 0 Social interest desire to advance the welfare of others 0 Striving for superiority drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves Ca lung 0 Personal unconscious based on their life experiences 0 Collective unconscious memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race I Archetypes inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways Object relations theories focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences with caregivers Adult Attachment Styles 0 Secure o Anxious avoidant o Anxious ambivaent THE PHENOMENOLOGCAL HUMANSTC PERSPECTIVE Phenomenology emphasis on the primacy of immediate experience George Kelly39s Personal Construct Theory Personal constructs cognitive categories into which they sort the people and events in their lives Role Construct Repertory Test assess individuals personal construct systems I fixed roe therapy Carl Roger39s Theory of the Self Selfactualization highest realization of human potential I The Self 0 Self an organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself o Selfconsistency an absence of conflict among sef perceptions o Congruence consistency between sef perceptions and experiences I The Need for positive regard 0 Need for positive regard acceptance sympathy and love from others I Unconditional positive regard communicates that the person is inherently worthy of love regardless of accomplishments or behavior I Conditional positive regard dependent on how the child behave 0 Need for positive selfregard desire to feel good about ourselves I Conditions of worth dictate the circumstances under which we approve or disapprove ourselves I Fully Functioning Persons individuals who were close to achieving sef actuaization Research on the Self I Selfesteem how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves I Selfverification need to confirm the sef concept I Selfenhancement strong and pervasive tendency to gain and preserve a positive sef image THE TRAIT PERSPECTIVE MAPPING THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY Personality traits relatively stable cognitive emotional and behavioral characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others Factor Analytic Approaches Factor analysis identify clusters of behaviors that are highly correlated with one another but not with behaviors in other clusters I models 0 Cate s Sixteen Personality Factors 0 Five factor model I Openness I Conscientiousness I Extraversion I Agreeableness I Neuroticism I Consistency across Situation 0 Selfmonitoring very attentive to situational cues and adapt their behavior to what they think would be most appropriate BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY Personality and the Nervous System I Eysenck s ExtraversionStability Model 0 Introverts overaroused o Extroverts underaroused o Unstable large and sudden shift of arousal o Stabe sma and gradual shift ofarousal I Temperament building Blocks of Personality o Temperament individual differences in emotional and behavioral styles that appear so early in life that they are assumed to have a biological basis THE SOCAL COGNTVE PERSPECTIVE Socialcognitive theories combine the behavioral and cognitive perspectives into an approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences reciprocal determinism the person the person39s behavior and the environment all influence one another in a patter two way causalhnk Julian Rotter Expectancy Reinforcement Value and Locus of Control Locus of control generalized expectancies o Internalexternal locus of control an expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives Alberta Bandura Social Learning and Sef Efficacy SelfEfficacy their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve desired outcomes 0 Performance experiences 0 Observational learning 0 Verbal persuasion o Emotional arousal Walter Mischel and Yuichi Shoda The Cognitive Affective Personality System Cognitiveaffective Personality System organized system of five person variables that interact continuously with one another and with environment generating the distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize a person encoding strategies categorize and understand events expectancies and beliefs 0 Behavioraloutcome expectancies if then links between alternative behaviors and possible outcomes goals and values motivational structure affects emotional responses competencies and sef reguatory process 0 selfregulation processes internal sef administered rewards and punishments behavioral signatures consistent ways of responding in particular classes of situations CULTURE GENDER AND PERSONALITY Culture Differences Gender schemas complexity tightness collectivist vs individualistic organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Interviews 0 structured interviews contain set of specific questions that are administered to every participant Behavioral assessments psychologist devise an explicit coding system that contains the behavioral categories of interest Remote behavioral sampling researchers and clinicians can collect sef reported samples of behavior from respondents as they live their daily lives Personality scale 0 Rationaltheoretical approach items are based on theorist s conception of the personality trait to be measured I NEO Personality Inventory measures the big five personality traits Empirical approach items are chosen not because their content seems relevant to the trait on rational grounds but because each item has been answered differently by groups of people known to differ in the personality characteristics of interest I Minnesota Multiphasic Personality nventory 2 Projective Test present subjects with ambiguous stimuli and ask for some interpretation of them 0 Rorschach test 10 inkblots Thematic Apperception Test series of pictures derived from paintings drawings and magazine illustration