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Biology 1500 Notes - Week 2

by: Liz Fish

Biology 1500 Notes - Week 2 STAT 1200 - 03

Liz Fish
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
Joel Maruniak

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About this Document

Here are the notes from the second week of Biology 1500 with Maruniak. Anything bolded and underlined is a crossword word. Enjoy!
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
Joel Maruniak
Class Notes
Biology, 1500, maruniak, week, 2, two
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liz Fish on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 1200 - 03 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Joel Maruniak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/14/15
Week 2 Membrane Proteins Customize membranes 0 A bilayer forms a matrix proteins perform specific functions 0 Form channels that allow ions and water to pass in and out of the cell a Form transporters to move impermeable molecules in and out of the cell Act as antennas for incoming signals Act as enzymes Extracellular surface parts uniquely identify the cells 0 Attach a membrane to other cells or the cytoskeleton Movement Across the Plasma Membrane o Diffusion is the movement of molecules down their concentration gradient 0 Nonpolars diffuse through the membranes polars don t 0 Movement of water down its concentration gradient is called osmosis o lons can only cross membranes through channels and transporters o Transporters are large membrane proteins 0 They move impermeable compounds from one side of the membrane to the other e The rate is saturable because the number of transporters is finite o Facilitated Transport moves import molecules faster down their concentration gradient 0 No energy used Glucose enters the cells this way insulin turns the transports on 0 Active Transport is like facilitated diffusion except it uses energy to move molecules up and down the concentration gradient 0 Many compounds are too to use channels or transports 0 These use endocytosisexocytosis o Endocytosis the plasma membrane invigilates folds into itself to form vesicles 0 Exocytosis the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and the contents are exported c There are 3 types of endocytosis W particulate matter is engulfed o Immune cells do this to viruses and bacteria 0 Pinocytosis extracellular liquid is taken in ReceptorMediated Endocvtos a forming vesicle is lined with receptors for specific molecules 0 Cholesterol is endocytosed via HDL and LDL receptors Cytoskeleton o Eukaryotic cells have a skeleton made of 3 types of protein filaments o m the finest filament it forms long thin filaments 0 Most abundant protein makes up 1015 of all of the protein in the body a Involved in cell movement and structure also in muscle contraction 0 Intermediate Filaments tough fibrous structural proteins like keratin o In brain cells these are tangled in ALS and Parkinson s o Microtubules the largest filament hollow form internal scaffold that determines the cell s shape 0 Forms the spindle apparatus in cell division 0 Moves cilia and flagella Organelles and vesicles are moved along these 0 Degenerate and tangle Neurofibrillarv Tandles in Alzheimer s and athletes with repetitive head trauma 0 Head trauma causes Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy CTE groups intellectual and memory deficits anger depression early Alzheimer s in players of contact sports Organelles and Internal Components 0 Endonla mic Reticulum ER extensive network of membranes 0 Derived from the plasma membrane 0 Divides the cell into compartments forms an assembly line for synthesis or breakdown of molecules forms vesicles 0 Rough ER Studded with ribosomes these are proteinRNA complexes that synthesize proteins 0 Smooth ER has enzymes where carbohydrate and lipid synthesis occur 0 There are lots in cells that produce steroid hormones c There are also lots in detoxification tissue like the liver that use Smooth ER enzymes to break down toxic compounds 0 Golgi Apparatus or bodies Golgi stacks of membranes derived from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Collects and modi es molecules then packages them in vesicles and distributes them Animal cells contain about 1020 Golgi bodies Plant cells have hundreds of Golgis Proteins and lipids from the Endoplasmic Reticulum go to the Golgi to get carbohydrate or phosphate groups added 0 This helps them become glycolipids or glycoproteins and phospholipids or phosphoproteins Golgi are plentiful in secretory cells where they make vesicles for export Golgi also make lysosomes equivalent to vacuoles in nonanimal cells for its cell39s use Nucleus Hasa O c There Mitochondria Contain digestive enzymes that can break down most organic macromolecules White blood cells kill bacteria viruses etc by putting them into lysosomes There are a number of lysosomal storage diseases about 50 such as TaySachs A defective gene causes an enzyme that breaks down a lipid to be absent in TaySachs causing liquid to accumulate in neurons leading to brain damage and death by about age 5 Silicosis and Asbestosis result from indigestible silica and asbestos bers being trapped in lysosomes which they pierce and cause to leak o Enzymes leaking from lysosomes damage lungs Nuclear Envelope that39s 2 layers of membrane lt39s continuous with and derived from the Endoplasmic Reticulum are a number of big pores in an envelope Many proteins and smaller molecules can39t pass Allow 2 types of large molecules to pass 0 Proteins needed in the nucleus are made in ribosomes RNA going from the nucleus to the ribosomes The number of pores varies with metabolic activity 0 More metabolic activity more pores Nucleus contains a Nucleolis o This is a region on chromosomes where a lot of rRNA is being made for ribosome protein synthesis stations Nuclear pores are made from about 50 different proteins 0 Proteins are directed for import into the nucleus by NLS39s Nuclear Localization Signals short sequences of amino acids 0 Importing and Exporting are complex and require energy 0 Pores are positively charged so compounds passing through have to be negatively charged Originated when Alpha Proteobacteria entered Eukaryotes very early 0 Perform aerobic respiration for our cells About the same size as these bacteria Mitochondria have their own DNA which is circular like bacteria Eukaryotes don39t manufacture Mitochondria existing mitochondria ssion like bacteria 0 The nucleus controls ssioning o Aerobic conditioning raises the number of mitochondria o Metabolically active cells have more mitochondria o Antibiotics that inhibit bacterial ribosomes inhibit mitochondria o Mitochondria don39t have a cell wall Organelles unique to plants Chloroplasts arose from engulfed cyanobacteria Double outer membrane Have own genome reproduce by ssioning Plants have a large central vacuole that can be greater than 75 of the cell39s volume Metabolism Stores water metabolites digestive enzymes wastes Performs many functions of animal lysosomes Provides water pressure turgor that keeps plants from wilting 3 Major Types Photosvnthesis synthesis of organic molecules from C02 and H20 using energy from the sun Catabolism breakdown od organic molecules to obtain energy and materials Anabolism synthesis of organic molecules from materials to energy a All life uses ATP as an energy molecule which implies that ATP evolved early Glycolysis only type of metabolism that almost all living organisms perform ls anaerobic uses no oxygen All reactions occur in cytoplasm none in organelles Glycolysis is a series of 10 reactions Essentially cuts glucose in half to produce two 3carbon molecules of pyruvate Energy is required to make ATP from ADP and is produced by breaking bonds Inef cient because only 2 of 10 reactions produce enough energy to make ATP Glycolysis produces a net of only 2 ATPsglucose


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