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Biology 1500 Notes - Week 3

by: Liz Fish

Biology 1500 Notes - Week 3 STAT 1200 - 03

Liz Fish
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
Joel Maruniak

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About this Document

Here are the notes for Biology 1500, week 3. This was a short week, as we had Monday off. It's only 2 lectures. Anything underlined and bolded is a crossword term.
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
Joel Maruniak
Class Notes
Biology, 1500, maruniak, notes, week, 3, three
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liz Fish on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 1200 - 03 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Joel Maruniak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/14/15
Week 3 Metabolism contd Average person needs 2000 calories a day 236 pounds of solid ATP Only about 17 ounces of ATP is in the body at any given time ATP has to be regenerated over and over Aerobic Respiration o Pyruvate is actively transported into mitochondria This is immediately decarboxviated loses carbon dioxide to acetyl CoA 2carbons Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle lt39s H39s are stripped off and Carbons are breathed out as Carbon Dioxide Fats and proteins can be converted to acetyl CoA and run through the Krebs Cycle Generation of ATP by Mitochondria Mitochondria inner and outer membranes form 2 chambers Krebs cycle occurs in the inner chamber lt regenerates 2 ATPs by bondbreaking like glycolysis However most ATPs are generated by energy extracted from Hydrogens stripped off acetyl CoA in the Krebs Cycle Hydrogens are picked up by carrier molecules NAD or FADH Taken to ETC Electron Transport Chain on the inner membrane Energy of H39s is stripped off and Acetyl CoA resides in their electrons These high energy electrons are used in the ETC to pump H39s into the outer chamber a Builds a high concentration of H in the mitochondria39s outer chamber The High concentration of H and its charge create 2 forces that act to drive H into the inner chamber Chemiosmosis o 1 force is the concentration gradient 0 Second force comes from positive charges repelling But the inner and outer membranes are impermeable to H Only place H39s can go is at a specialized protein called ATP Synthase o This enzyme harnesses forces driving H back into inner chamber to generate ATPs Carbon Dioxides that were clipped off in the Krebs Cycle are breathed out The oxygen that we breathe in and some spent electrons combine with extra Hs left after pyruvate is dismantled all to form H20 Aerobic Respiration provides an extra 28 ATPs after Glycolysis yields 2 Each H carried by NAD yields about 25 ATPs Each H carried by FADH yields about 15 ATPs o FADH produces fewer ATPs because of where H enters the ETC This is less than the theoretical yield of 38 ATPsGlucose Because energy has 2 be used to actively transport pyruvate ADP and P04 and 2 NADHs from glycolysis into mitochondria And mitochondria membranes are a bit leaky to Hs o Fermentation When muscles don39t get enough Oxygen pyruvate undergoes fermentation anaerobic metabolism lt39s reduced has hydrogens added to it to Lactate Because pyruvate can39t diffuse easily out of cells but lactate can Otherwise pyruvate would build up and create product inhibition which would slow the production of ATPs by glycolysis Yeast produce alcohol ETOH from pyruvate o Photosynthesis Chloroplasts perform photosynthesis Using disklike structures called Thylakoids A stack of which is called a granum Cytoplasm is called Stroma Chlorophyll is a pigment in most photosynthetics lt39s green because green is the only wavelength not absorbed o Photosystems linked arrays of chlorophylls that collect light energy Cyanobacteria evolved Photosystem II to be used in combination with Photosystem l Photosystem ll allowed them to get Hydrogens from H20 Light absorbed by chlorophyll excites an electron that is routed to a reaction center chlorophyll that can export it to the ETC Photosystem ll works rst makes only ATP using an ETC as in mitochondria via chemiosmosis Pumps Hs inward across the thylakoid membrane ATP is made as Hs move out through ATP synthesis At the end of the ETC electrons are handed off to Photosystem I This electron has given up about half of its energy in the ETC to make ATPs Photosystem l absorbs light boosts this electron to an excited state again Energy from this excited electron is used to make NADPH from NADP and Hs NADPH is the source Hydrogens used to make organic molecules Photosystem I also makes some ATPs because Photosystem ll can39t provide all the ATPs needed to make glucose NADP is different HydrogenElectron carrier than NAD Allows plants to keep catabolism and anabolism separate Photosystem ll gave Photosystem I an electron which is given to NADP along with an H Photosystem ll now needs a replacement electron badly It gets one by splitting H20 into Hs electrons and Oxygen Hs go to chemiosmosis and NADP Electrons replace those given to Photosystem l Oxygen is released as a waste 0 Calvin Cycle reactions that make glucose Uses 18 ATPs 12 NADPHs and 6 C025 to make one glucose C025 are run through the cycle oneatatime Each C02 is xed by adding by adding to RuBP ribulose 1 5 bisphosphate a 5Carbon sugar Catalyzed by Rubisco most common protein on Earth Essentially glucose is made by running glycolysis in reverse occurs in stroma 0 Cell Reproduction 2 types of cell division by most Eukaryotes Mitosis occurs when cell makes a copy of itself Meiosis provides gametes for sexual reproduction Most eukaryotic cells have pairs of chromosomes Diploid Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes Pair members similar structures and are called Homologs Gametes sperm eggs spores pollen are Haploid


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