PSY 1- Brief History of Psychology
PSY 1- Brief History of Psychology
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Lauren Stevenson on Wednesday August 6, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Date Created: 08/06/14
Brief history of Psychology 0 Ancient Greeks 4quot Century BCE o Plato suggests that the brain is the seat of mental processes body exists to serve the soul self o Aristotle in De Anima coins the phrase quottabula rasa 0 Avicenna 11 Century o quothuman intellect at birth is like a tabula rasa a pure pontentiallity that is actualized through education and comes to know and that knowledge is attained through quotempirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts 17 Century 0 Rene Descartes argues for dualism the mind and body are separate independent entities Cartesian dualism o The role of the pineal gland 0 John Locke argues that the mind is tabula rasa at birth 18 Century 0 David Hume agrees with Locke that all knowledge is built from sense experience ie tabula rasa 0 Immanuel Kant disaggreees o A posteriori knowledge knowledge derived from experience o A priori knowledge knowledge derived from thought prior to experience 19 Century 0 Franz Joseph Gall develops phrenology o Particular areas in brain that have different functions if one area is highly developed then this section will be larger push against the scull and creates a lump Can examine the lumps and analyze a person39s personality or trait o One thing that was correct localization of function in the brain 0 1870s Wilhelm Wundt publishes first experimental psych textbook and opens first psych research lab at U of Leipzig 0 1880s G Stanley Hall opens first American psych research lab at Johns Hopkins 0 1890s o William James functionaism focus on acts and functions of the mind rather than its contents thinking is for doing o Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic theory people are motivated by powerful unconscious drives and conflicts o Edward B Titchener Structuralism focused on the mind s internal content understood mental life as a combination of simple elements 20 Century 0 James B Watson and BF Skinner practice Behaviorism o Focus on observable and measurable behavior o Not interested in purely mental events o Strong assumption of empiricism tabula rasa I Anybody can become anything if you control their environment o BF Skinner wrote a book about how language is learned via operant conditioning Noam Chomsky wrote a review on why this is impossible poverty of the stimulus children are not simply exposed to enough language to learn all rules and regulations of language o Chomsky said that their must already be a structure in the mind that can learn language o John Garcia showed that rats would easily learn associations between certain types of stimuli but not others equipotentiality ideal was violated The Cognitive Revolution 0 Starting in the 1950s intellectual exchange between fields eg computer science linguistics neuroscience led to the cognitive revolution 0 quotCognitivism is the currently dominant paradigm in psychology o Studies mental states and processes as causes and effects of behavior Some Types of Psychology 0 Clinical Psychology o Helping people with behavioral and mental problems addiction depression anxiety eating disorders marital problems phobias etc 0 Biological Psychology o What are the biological substrates of behavioral and mental processes Animal models neuroimaging 0 Cognitive psychology o Pursues an informationprocessing account of perception attention memory reasoning language problem solving decision making I EG The Stroop test shows an individual s ability to inhibit reading 0 Developmental Psychology o How does the human mind change across the lifespan How does chidren s moral cognition develop 0 Educational psychology o How do people learn best in a school setting What kinds of lessons are most effective for particular material 0 Evolutionary Psychology o Views the human mind as a set of adaptations that have evolved via natural selection to solve ancestrally recurrent problems Ex What mechanisms do humans have to avoid sleeping with kin 0 Industria Organizationa Psychology o Studies how to maximize human output in work environments Ex how can we design an office to maximize productivity 0 Personality Psychology o Attempts to measure and understand personality differences between people What are the fundamental traits that people differ on 0 Social Psychology o Attempt to study how people think about and relate to each other Ex what would make a romantic relationship successful
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