PSY 1-What is developmental psychology?
PSY 1-What is developmental psychology?
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Date Created: 08/06/14
What is Developmental Psychology 0 The study of changes in humans over the course of the entire lifespan o Notjust children o Follow same group of people for long periods of time 0 Issues in developmental psychology o Is change gradual and continuous or stagelike I Staircase vs ramp o Is knowledge and mental structure innate or learned through experience Early Neurological Development 0 At around the 16 day of development the neural plate forms 0 Continues curving to form the neural groove 0 By the 21 day the neural tube is formed 0 The front rostral part of the neural tube becomes the brain and the rest becomes the spine encephalization 0 By 7 weeks the prosencephalon mesencephalon and rhombencephalon have divided Early Learning 0 The animal literature has revealed critical periods for learning o Time when the organism has heightened sensitivity to particular stimuli that are necessary for development of a particular skill o Ex imprinting in geese goslings need to follow their mother I But how do they learn who their mother is I quotimprint on first large moving object they see I Conrad Lorenz biological study of animal behavior Nobel prize winner tested the idea that geese would imprint on first large moving object made himself the first large object seen the geese imprinted on him not innate knowledge of who the mother is I Helpful for keeping animals in captivity or for conservation efforts 0 Do humans have critical periods o Language acquisition We are prepared to learn a language from early childhood through puberty but it s very difficult after that I Story of Genie girl unexposed to language during critical window I Acquired some elements of language vocabulary but could not acquire grammar o Critical periods for the vision system State theories of Development 0 Piaget39s Theory Jean Piaget 18961980 o Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher o Behavior is based on schemata organized ways of interacting with objects I Assimilation applying an old schema to a new problem I Accommodation revising and modifying a schema to fit a new problem o Theory of Cognitive Development I Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage 0 Ages 02 Children understand the world primarily in terms of physical sensations no abstract reasoning no perspectivetaking 0 Exploring the environment 0 Develop object permanence I Stage 2 Preoperational Stage 0 Ages 27 still an egocentric view difficulty distinguishing appearance from reality lacks concept of conservation 0 Develops theory of mind other people39s perspective recognizing that other people may have different thoughts than I do I State 3 Concrete Operational Stage 0 Ages 711 child understands conservation tasks child can perform logical operations on concrete objects but can t handle abstract or hypothetical ideas 0 Doesn t plan actions in advance I Stage 4 Formal Operational Stage 0 Age 11 onwards plans in advance hypothetical and abstract reasoning logical and deductive reasoning o Some of Piaget39s proposals have not stood up to more recent research I Ex When does theory of mind emerge 0 Kids don t pass Say Anne test until around age 4 0 But what39s wrong with that test Think about how the question is asked linguistic demands inhibitionexecutive function o Other tests of Theory of Mind I Looking time paradigm looking time reveals expectation ie knowledge 0 Fase beief task can be passed at 7 months I The way you measure something can affect your results I Object permanence Rene Baillargeon box and fence movement 3 months of age 0 Erik Erikson 19021994 o GermanAmerican psychologist o Developed a theory of psychosocial development I At each stage the individual must overcome a struggle to acquire the virtue associated with that stage I If an individual does not successfully complete a stage the problems associated with it may reemerge in future