KNES360 Lect (Weeks 1&2)
KNES360 Lect (Weeks 1&2) KNES 360
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Burns on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KNES 360 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Rogers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Exercise in Kinesiology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
KNES 360 Lecture 9215 Introduction gt Hippocrates Proved that disease was a natural process 0 Signs and symptoms of disease are caused by natural reactions of the body gt Krogh 1St to discover diffusion of oxygen 0 Muscle contraction o Skeletal muscle during contractions 0 Muscle biochemistry gt Astrand 1St exercise physiologist to develop a devise for exercise testing 0 Karolinska institute gt DB Dill 1St dedicated to exercise physiology lab facility 0 Harvard fatigue lab 0 During WWII helped with soldiers not fatigue gt Hill and Meyerhof 0 Muscle biochemistry I Glycolysis 0 High intensity short duration good at producing ATP Chapter 6 The Cardiovascular system and exercise gt 4 major tubes 0 Arteries o Veins o Capillaries o Arterioles gt Functions of CV system 0 Transports oxygenated blood to tissues 0 Delivers metabolic substrates to the cells I Amino acids I Glucose I Triglycerides Fatty acids 0 Removes metabolic endproducts I C02 I Urea I Ammonia I Lactic acid 0 Regulates pH to control acidosis alkalosis o Transports hormones to cells to regulate metabolic pathways and cardiovascular functions I Hormones Epinephrine Norepinephrine Contraction of heart Insulin Glucose uptake and blood redistribution in skeletal muscle 0 Maintain uid volume o Absorbs heat and redistributes blood to periphery skeletal muscle I Ability to exercise in heat 9415 Mitral amp Aortic Valves gt Valves and main functions 0 Tricuspid 0 Pulmonary o Mitral o Aortic I Unidirectional ow gt Chordae Tendineae and papillary muscles 0 Facilitate the opening and closing of the valves I Important in ejecting blood and keep blood ow in one direction gt Stenosis Narrowing gt Prolapse Retraction of valve in opposite direction 0 Allows blood to move backwards Disrupts unidirectional ow gt Heart size factors 0 Body size 0 Genetics 0 Exercise training status 0 Presence of disease I Ex COPD Hypertrophy of right side of heart 9915 Circulation gt Blood volume from rest exercise doesn t change 0 Unless exercising in heat gt Venous return low pressure 0 Blood ow coming back to heart 0 Site of most blood at rest gt Arterial ow High pressure gt To measure status of CV system during exercise 0 Graded exercise test or stress test 0 CV response to exercise 0 Measure arterial side 0 See heart rate response and arterial pressure Blood pressure gt Normal response to exercise 0 Systolic pressure increases 0 Diastolic pressure remains about the same 0 Coronary arteries vasodialate 2030 I To facilitate increase in blood ow gt Pulmonary artery Carries blood to lungs 0 Gets oxygenated gt Pulmonary vein Brings oxygenated blood back to the right side of heart Right Atrium gt Left side of heart O Bigger left ventricle and walls I Contracts pushes blood to aorta High pressure side of circulatory system gt Coronary artery disease CAD O Blockages or plaque buildup reduces opening to the artery 9 reduces blood ow reducing ability to vasodialate gt Why are there cardiac tubes 0 Cardiac muscle is so thick oxygen substrates and hormones cannot diffuse through the tissue 91115 gt Angiograms O 0 Thread plastic tube from femoral artery or more recently through small vessel in wrist9 to the heart Infuse dye in vessels see in pictures Used to invasively detect if coronary arteries are open or blocked Done when one possesses I Chest pain I Shortness of breath The intrinsic conduction system ICS gt Syncytium 0 All cardiac cells have the ability to contract in unison gt Electrical cell 0 Generate electrical impulse gt Contractile cells 0 O O O O 0 8085 Contract as unit Shorten Generate force Myosin thick filament Actin Thin filament gt Structures of ICS O O 0 SA node I Electrical cells I Right Atria I Made of P cells Pacemaker Spontaneously generate impulse I Velocity 3ftsec AV node I Electrical cells I Between right atria and ventricle I Velocity 3ftsec Bundle Branches I Electrical cells I Right and left bundle branches along inner ventricular septum I Transmit impulse down ventricles O I Velocity 1ftsec Purkinje fibers I Electrical cells I Impulse to each cardiac cell I Hearts ability to act in unison I Velocity 13ftsec gt Cardiac muscle a syncytium O O Myofibrils actin and myosin I Help cardiac muscle contraction Z lineZ line I Sarcomere T tubule I Carries impulse from sarcolemma to cell Mitochondria I Power house of cell Sarcoplasmic reticulum I Stores calcium muscle contraction gt What helps heart work as syncytium O O Intrinsic conduction system Intercalated disks
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