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FSHN 120 Weeks 7-8 Notes

by: Hannah Wright

FSHN 120 Weeks 7-8 Notes FSHN 120

Hannah Wright
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About this Document

These notes cover what was talked about in lecture during weeks 7 and 8.
Contemporary Nutrition
Roach, R
Class Notes
FSHN 120, food science and human nutrition, UIUC, Rebecca Roach, Lecture Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Wright on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 120 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Roach, R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
FSHN 120 Weeks 7­8 Notes  Food Rule #18: Eat mostly plants, especially leaves ­diets rich in fruits and vegetables reduce risk of dying from ALL Western diseases.  Vegetarians are healthier than meat eaters and live longer… Diabetes: type 2 DM ­obesity, genetics, physical inactivity, and poor diet increase overall risk ­metabolic syndrome increases risk ­increased age increases risk, but younger people and even children are now commonly diagnosed Protection from an management of type 2 diabetes ­eat a healthy diet, get daily exercise, keep a healthful body weight ­eating slightly fewer carbs and slightly more portend and fat may help regulate blood  glucose levels; consult a dietitian ­oral pharmaceutical agents, NOT insulin, are used to treat type 2 DM Gestational Diabetes (GDM) ­develops later in pregnancy ­in the US all pregnant women under a doctor’s care are screened ­if diet and exercise changes don’t get BG down, insulin must be injected­diabetes pills  are not safe for the fetus ­after the baby is delivered, GDM disappears, but mom’s and baby’s chances for type 2  later in life are increased ­babies born to moms with poor BG controls are often too big. if a baby weighed > 10  pounds at birth, it is likely that the mom had GDM  Protection and management ­no known prevention for Type 1­ injected insulin is the only therapy ­avoid alcoholic beverages, which can cause hypoglycemia if insulin or oral meds are  used ­healthful lifestyle choices can protect from or delay onset of type 2 diabetes ­oral medications and/or insulin injections may be required once type 2 diabetes has  been diagnosed Fats ­fat in food is an essential nutrient ­fat on the body is a storage form of extra calorie from everything we eat  Big Fat lies! ­eating fat makes you fat ­a really healthy diet has NO fat it ­when you trim the fat from meat, you’ve removed it all ­a higher % of calories should come from protein that from fat ­fat is bad ­fat causes heart disease ­canola oil causes cancer ­margarine is better than butter ­cholesterol is the same as fat and eggs have too much Heart disease is the #1 killer of Americans­BUT we know so little about it.. ­fat does not cause heart disease ­fish oil will not prevent heart disease ­vitamin supplements do not prevent heart disease ­sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure which is associated with heart  disease ­there is not heart disease gene that we know of yet ­eat right, exercise, know your cholesterol levels, BMI, blood pressure, and family  history  Lipids ­do not readily dissolve in water ­should comprise ­20­30% of calories  ­fats (solid) and oils (liquid): 9 kcal/gm ­types of lipids are found in food: ­triglycerides (most common form in food and the body) ­phospholipid ­sterols (cholesterol)  Food Rule #20: eating what stands on one leg is better than eating what stands  on two­and that’s better than what stands on four Visible Fats: those we can see in foods or can easily see have been added to foods,  such as dressing or chicken skin Hidden Fats: those added to processed or prepared foods to improve texture or taste,  which we may not be aware of, or that occur naturally ­Lower­fat versions of foods may not always be lower in Calories Reduce your intake of saturated fats ­be conscious of the saturated fat content of meats, baked goods and snack goods, and foods including vegetables that are fried, breaded, or drenched in cause ­avoid trans fatty acids ­when you limit your intake of dietary cholesterol, you will likely limit your intake of  saturated fats Select Beneficial Fats ­consume and cook with leafy green vegetables, avocados, soybeans, soybean oil, and  flaxseed oil ­consider including fish in your diet at least twice a week or consider taking a fish oil  supplement ­fish can contain mercury, PCBs, and other environmental contaminants, so be  selective ­2 or 3 times a week is perfectly fine Fat Replacers ­snack foods are frequent targets for fat replacers, substances that can reduce the fat  content ­fat replacers such as olestra have not provided very popular or effective because of  potential gastrointestinal side effects ­our growing obesity problems indicate that fat replacers do not help Americans lose  weight Role of Fats in Chronic Disease ­the chronic disease most closely associated with diets high in saturated fat is  cardiovascular disease (CAD, CVD, heart disease) ­The role of dietary fat in the development of cancer has been extensively researched,  butte relationship between some cancer types and dietary fat is controversial (ie. breast  cancer) ­the strongest association between dietary fat and cancer is for prostate cancer Dietary fats­what you eat ­saturated ­trans ­unsaturated fat ­essential fatty acids ­cholesterol Blood fats­used for lipid transport­predict risk for heart disease ­total cholesterol ­HDL ­LDL ­triglycerides ­VLDL dietary cholesterol does not raise our blood cholesterol (eating too much sat and trans  fat raises blood cholesterol)  Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) ­dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels ­The most common forms: ­coronary heart disease, or coronary artery disease ­stroke ­hypertension, or high blood pressure ­peripheral vascular disease Atherosclerosis: disease where the artery walls build up lipid deposits and scar tissue, impairing blood flow ­the stiffness that results is commonly called “hardening of the arteries” ­the result is that the heart must work harder to push blood through the vessels Hypertension: is a major chronic disease in the United States ­it functions as a warning sign for a person’s risk for developing heart disease or stroke ­for many people, hypertension is hereditary; for others, it can be induced through poor  nutrition and exercise habits or a combination of poor habits and heredity In Depth: Cardiovascular Disease ­modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease ­being overweight ­physical activity ­smoking ­type 2 diabetes mellitus ­inflammation in the body ­abnormal blood lipids ­the intake of certain types of fats can protect against heart disease but not prevent it ­diets high in omega­3 fatty acids can reduce inflammation and increase HDL  cholesterol levels ­LDLs are often called “bad” cholesterol because of their role in transporting cholesterol  throughout the body  Diets high in saturated fats ­decrease the removal of LDLs from the blood ­contribute to the formation of laces that can block arteries ­increase triglyceride levels (chylomicrons and VLDLs) ­make your body makes more cholesterol  ­keep total fat intake within 20­35% of your daily energy intake ­decrease your dietary saturated fat to less than 7% of total energy intake ­increase omega­3 fatty acids from foods ­consume 400 ug/day of folate ­increase dietary intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables  ­maintain blood glucose within normal ranges ­eat meals throughout the day  ­limit alcohol consumption ­don’t smoke ­maintain an active lifestyle ­maintain a healthful body weight ­limit dietary sodium ­follow the DASH diet  ­dietary approaches to stop hypertension Ch. 6 Lectures Proteins: crucial components of all body tissues­the diva macronutrient ­adequate balanced calories along with exercise is what builds muscle ­nitrogen makes pro distinct form cho and fat ­amino acids are proteins building blocks ( 9 ea are essential and 11 aa are  nonessential) ­protein templates are in the nuclei of out genetic material. we make the portend that we need from our amino acid storage pool. A single aa can stop protein synthesis. We use  our amino acids over and over. ­denaturation does not destroy a protein, it simply makes it nonfunctional in its original  form. We still use the was.  BMPP ­consuming complimentary proteins is called mutual supplementation vegetarian and  vegan diets can provide MORE than enough protein through this practice ­proteins repair cells, maintain fluid balance and acid/base balance and keep our  immune system strong ­high quality protein is very easily digested, lower quality protein is just a little harder to  digest ­nitrogen balance tells us we need 0.8 grams of protein/kg of body weight ­vegetarian diets can be VERY healthful and are not difficult to manage


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