Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology SPPA 210
Popular in PHONETICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Schurott on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPPA 210 at Towson University taught by Lisa Geary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see PHONETICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Anatomy and Physiology of Speech Production 3 Main Anatomical Systems 0 Respiratory System 0 Respiration I providing air for speech production 0 Laryngeal o Phonatory I providing vocal fold vibration for voiced sounds o Supralaryngeal System 0 Articulatory I Provides movement of speech structures to form speech sounds o Resonatory Each system 0 Anatomy Structure 0 Physiology function Structure of Respiratory System muscular support 0 Ribcage 0 Bones enclosing chest cavity I Protects lungs o Lungs 0 Source of air for producing sounds I Made of flexible spongy tissue 0 Trachea o Windpipe connecting lungs with larynx I Made of cartilage and muscle 0 Diaphragm 0 Major muscle separating abdominal cavity from chest cavity I Supports lungs for inhalation and exhalation o Intercostal muscles 0 External intercostal I Muscles on outside of ribs 0 Contracts ribs out in inhalation 0 Internal intercostal I Muscles on inside of ribs 0 Contracts ribs in during exhalation Function of Respiratory System 0 Rib cage expands o Diaphragm contracts to create more space in chest cavity 0 Lowers when it contracts o Relaxes making air flow out 0 Only muscle needed for quiet inhalation 0 External intercostal muscles used for forced inhalation 0 Internal intercostal muscles 0 Contract to pull ribs in o Pushes air through trachea to larynx and rest of vocal tract 0 Lungs expand to fill space 0 Deflate making air flow out 0 Air pressure in lungs decreases and air flow in inhale Structure of laryngeal system 0 Larynx voice box of speech composed of cartilage muscles and other tissues located within the neck 0 Funnels air stream from the lungs 0 Includes the vocal folds 0 Vocal Folds paired muscle and tissue that vibrate within the larynx to produce voicing o Glottis space between vocal folds Function of Laryngeal System Air come from lungs through trachea Pushes against vocal folds to cause vibration o Pushes closed vocal folds open 0 Pressure decreases vocal folds slam shut 0 Air pushes closed vocal folds open again 0 Vocal fold vibration is the opening and closing of the vocal folds 0 Why vocal folds shut o Elasticity like rubber bands bouncing back 0 Bernoulli effect when velocity increases pressure decreases pulls vocal folds back in o Adduction closing of vocal folds o Abduction opening of vocal folds o Fundamental frequency of vocal folds 0 Rate of vocal fold vibration I Faster vibrationhigher pithc 0 Used for intonation I Changes in voice pitch that convey meaning 0 Provides phonation for production of voiced sounds o Phonation vibration of vocal folds 0 When sounds are voiced vocal folds vibrate Structure and Function of Supralaryngeal system 0 Pharynx throat connects oral and nasal cavities to larynx and esophagus o Laryngopharynx portion of pharynx adjoining larynx o Oropharynx portion of pharynx next to the posterior portion of the oral cavity o Nasopharynx portopn of pharynx next to posterior portion of nasal cavity 0 Air goes up through laryngopharynx and exits through oral andor nasal cavities o Nasal Cavitiy cavity from nasopharynx to nose 0 Velopharyngeal Port opening between nasopharynx and oropharynx 0 Air exits through velopharyngeal port and nose for nasal sounds o For other sounds velum and velopharyngeal port close to stop air from exiting nasal cavity 0 Oral Cavity cavity from oropharynx to lips Main focus for articulators structures that move to produce speech sounds Jaw bone in skull Mandible lowerjaw Maxilla upperjaw I Supports tongue I Often moves to support tongue movement especially vowels o Tongue muscle in oral cavity divided into sections I Body main bulk of tongue used for vowels I TipApex front end of tongue used for alveolar sounds and interdental sounds I Blade behind tip of tongue used for palatal sounds I Dorsum behind blade towards the back of the oral cavity used for velar sounds I Base back of tongue forms the front wall of pharynx used for vowels 0000 I LipsLabia o OpenClosed bilabial sounds o pbm o Neutralmidvowels o quotuher o Retractedvowe o i ee o Rounded vowels and consonant o uo and w I Teethe central incisors o Interdental sounds o Voicevoiceless th o Labiodental sounds fv 0 Rest of teeth 0 Used for other sounds o Often the tongue rest against teeth creating constriction I Alveolar Ridge rood of mouth behind top front teeth 0 Used for alveolar sounds o tdn I Palatal rood of mouth behind alveolar ridge 0 Hard palate bony structure separating oral and nasal cavities o Palatal sounds sh and quotzhquot 0 Soft palatevelum muscular structure posterior to hard palate o Velar sounds kg and quotngquot
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