Week 3 Notes: Chapter 7
Week 3 Notes: Chapter 7 301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Deal on Monday September 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. April South in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
CHAPTER 7 Evolution and Adaptation Mechanisms of Evolution 0 Mutation 0 Rare 0 Beneficial mutations selection 0 Genetic drift occurs when genetic variation is lost randomly due to mating mortality or inheritance o Bigger effects in smaller populations 0 Bottleneck effect due to large reduction in population size Survivors carry limited genetic diversity Small population can experience genetic drift May prevent population from adapting to future changes new pathogens etc o Founder effect small number of individuals colonize a new area 0 Selection certain phenotypes are favored to survive and reproduce o Stabilizing intermediate phenotypes have better fitness Removes harmful genetic variation Stable environments 0 Directional one extreme phenotypes is favored o Disruptive both extreme phenotypes are favored Microevolution o Populations 0 Random processes and selection 0 Artificial selection selection by humans 0 Some goal in mind 0 Can be harmful drug resistant bacteria 0 Natural selection differential survival and reproduction o Ecological process involved individuals interacting with the environment 0 Industrial melanism industrial activities cause habitats to change color Darker phenotypes favored Macroevolution o Occurs in higher levels of organization 0 Speciation new species formed 0 New species evolve so differently they cannot interbreed o Phylogenetic trees hypothesized relationships between species 0 Species with the greatest number of similar traits are the most closely related 0 True patterns of evolution are unknown 0 Allopatric speciation due to geographic isolation 0 Most common mechanism of speciation o Sympatric speciation occurs without geographic isolation o Polyploid contains three or more sets of chromosomes Chromosomes fail to migrate creating a diploid gamete Causes bigger plants Analyzing Ecology Mean average Variance of mean 62 EX2 EX2 Sample variance 32 EX2 EX2 Sample standard deviation 3 32 1 Standard error SE 5 Variables Independent manipulated causes other variables to change Dependent reliant on manipulative variable Continuous numerical values Categorical nominal groups Correlation Shows relationship between variables Positive both variables increase together Negative as one variable increases the other decreases Analyzed by regression Strength of Selection x x S 2 1 S 0 x2 Mean after selection 0 x1 Mean before selection o 3 Standard deviation Heritability H2 0 Proportion of phenotypic variation caused by genetic variation as opposed to environmental factors Response to Selection R 5H2
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