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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Gray on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 377 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Karen L Salekin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Psych Law and Justice in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Lauren Gray 11328775 2/1/2016 Chapter 4 Summary 1) Selection of Police Officers i) Crime is one of the main public concerns ii) Crime in America is ranked by the nature of the crime and by how much the community fears the crime iii) Crime has been decreasing since 2010 iv) Police come into contact with citizens the most out of the criminal justice system v) Police visibility is helpful but also makes police officers targets vi) Police are overworked and underappreciated vii)How police officers were selected took on a major urgency starting in the 1990’s because reports of white police officers beating blacks were raising the issue of racial bias viii) Reports like these are still going on today ix) Abner Louima’s case sparked a debate about the relationship between miniorities and the police (1) He was beaten and sodomized by a policemen x) Psychological evaluations for police officers started in 1916 by Alfred Binet (1) Produced the StanfordBinet intelligence test xi) No one with an IQ below 80 could be a police officer xii)Police of higher ranks scored lower on the tests than entry level patrolmen did xiii) By the mid 1980’s, 11 states made it mandatory for officers and applicants to have a psychological screening xiv) These tests are developed to screen out disturbed candidates xv)Today’s tests focus on assessing the levels of psychopathology that would interfere with the officers ability to do his job xvi) Police officers should have many characteristics: (1) Incorruptible: officers have been known to take bribes from citizens to get out of things but as a police officer you should treat all citizens equally and not give anyone special treatment (2) Well adjusted: a police officer should be able to do his job without becoming affected by what he or she sees on a day to day basis. They need to have thick skin but be sensitive at the same time and they need to be able to cope with the dangers and risks of their job (3) People oriented: a major duty for a police officer is to service others and keep the community safe. Officers need to have interest and compassion for others. “there is one thing we cannot teach you and that is about people. The bottom line is to treat people as people and you’ll get by” (4) Free of overly emotional reactions: an officer should be free of impulsive, overly aggressive reactions and other emotional responses. Restraint is key in officers job because they are trained to take an active role in crime detection (5) Dedicated: officers should be dedicated to the job. They should not be late or have constant personnel issues that interfere with them doing their jobs (6) Disciplined: officers should be team players. They should be able to take orders from their superiors and give orders to trainees (7) Logical: officers should be able to inspect crime scenes and make hypothesis about what they think happened and to develop a profile for the lawbreaker. xvii) There are other reasons for these tests. These tests help to screen out people who are always late or absent, disciplinary problems, at risk for harming citizens, and people who are reckless xviii) These tests are not always likely to find ideal police officers though xix) Psychologists evaluations rely on 3 tools: (1) Personal interviews (2) Observations of the candidates performing situations like hey would in the real world (3) Psychological tests A) Box 4.1 The Case of the Unidentified Skeleton a. A man’s skeleton was found and the skeleton was about 3 months old b. Nobody filed a missing persons report and nobody came to claim the skeleton c. Chief Detective Seedman asked if there was any sign of teeth because you can identify someone with their dental records d. The police said no e. They came to the conclusion that this man probably worked a lowpaying job, was single, and was living alone in an apartment, and was late on his rent because he was dead B) The Interview a. Personal interviews are most widely used b. Interviews are subject to distortion, low reliability, and questionable validity c. Reliability is increased when using structured interviews i. Structured interview: those in which the wording, order, and content of the interview are standardized d. Interviews are necessary part of the evaluations e. They also help with rapport building and getting to know the candidate f. Also they increase applicants cooperation and reduce apprehension C) Situational Tests a. These tests incorporate tasks that would be similar to real life tasks that the officers would be doing b. They are designed to predict performance on the job c. Tasks like observing patrols, analyzing clues, and discussing cases have been used d. It is now less favored e. Situational components are still incorporated today f. Situational testing is being used less because it takes a lot of time and it is expensive g. Today situational tasks such as writing reports are used because these are more common aspects of an officers job D) Psychological Tests a. Psychological tests have good reliability b. They can be scored and administered to a large group at one time c. Very important in police screening d. Two types of tests: i. Cognitive or intellectual ability tests ii. Personality traits, integrity, and emotional stability tests e. Most officers score between average and above average on the cognitive tests f. These scores are important but not important because they will not tell how well someone will perform in the field g. The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the personality test most often used in police screening h. Then it is followed by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and the 16 personality questionnaire (16PF) i. Evidence for the validity in these tests is mixed j. The Inwald Personality Inventory was developed in 1979 specifically for identifying psychologically unsuitable law enforcement officers i. it was designed and validated for use in high risk occupations ii. has 26 scales that tap past and present behavior that has relevance for law enforcement iii. it can predict poor job performance better than any other personality test k. Inwald also developed a predictor of positive work related characteristics and the Inwald Survey5 with questions about domestic violence l. A written tool used to select officers is the POST i. It is part of the situational component ii. Measures arithmetic and comprehension iii. Has been mandated as a statewide screening measure 2) The Validity of Police Screening a) Good empirical research on the usefulness of psychological screening is difficult to conduct b) Predictive validity: using actual police performance on the job i) The outcome is time consuming and expensive c) They use research that examines the relationship between screening and performance by officers in academies and training schools d) This relationship is usually positive e) An inexpensive form of assessment is gathering peer ratings from trainees as they go through training together f) A problem with testing the validity of these tests is that when someone does bad on the screening they are eliminated from becoming a police officer and this makes it harder to see whether the predictions of their bad performance were valid or not g) Most applicants try to present an unrealistic positive image of themselves h) They deny or don’t report symptoms of mental illness i) The personality tests have validity scales and are designed to detect test takers who are faking good j) They are useful in detecting defensiveness and deception k) Selecting the right criteria to effectively measure police performance is difficult l) Some departments are really small and many of the officers are expected to do more and have more diverse jobs and it is unreasonable to expect that their cognitive abilities and psychological traits would be related in the same way as someone inn a bigger department 3) FitnessForDuty Evaluations a) Fitnessforduty evaluations: a psychological assessment for police officers i) Can be ordered by an administrator to see if the officer is still fit to do his or her job after a traumatic event b) Difficult for all parties c) Hard to find a balance between protecting society from an impaired officer and the legal right of the officer to privacy and fair employment d) Clinicians have a thin line between the departments need to know the condition of the officer and the expectation of the officer for the results to remain confidential e) Officers have a choice too. They can tell their administrators and risk getting disqualified from service or they can hide their symptoms to protect the security of their jobs f) 2 models have been used: i) The department uses the same psychologist to perform the evaluation and to do the treatment ii) The psychologist who evaluates the officer does not give any treatment (1) This avoids ethical conflicts (2) Endorsed as the “guidelines for fitness for duty evaluations” 4) Training of Police Officers i) After candidates have been selected they go through several months of training ii) Large American cities require 24 weeks with 40 hours a week of training iii) Smaller jurisdiction require 14 to 16 weeks iv) Most departments are starting to require at least 2 years of college education v) 2 common types of criticism of police training: (1) After rigorous selection procedures, few trainees fail the training (2) There is sufficient training in the field but lack of close supervision of trainees during the time they are on patrol (3) Time spent with a veteran is limited and could deprive them of learning different ways to respond to situations (4) Veterans could also teach the trainees bad habits and ad ways of doing things vi) There are also limits to the benefits of supervision (1) Teach trainees to be cynical about law enforcement (2) To “cut corners” in their duties (3) To identify with the norms of police organizations rather than with the values of society 5) Training in Crisis Intervention i) Police are asked to maintain order and to stop violent situations involving people with mental illness, people who are intoxicated, angry, or motivated by politically extreme views (1) These types of people pose major risks to police officers and bystanders ii) Police are often called to 3 types of situations: (1) Incidents involving mentally ill citizens (2) Family disturbances (3) The taking of hostages iii) Psychologists have made important contributions to each area by helping with crisis prevention training A) Interactions with Mentally Ill Citizens iv) Several factors have been forcing mentally ill people out of their mental health facilities and forcing them to live in noninstitutionalized settings such as: (1) Halfway houses (2) Hospital emergency rooms (3) Detoxification facilities (4) “flophouses” (5) Local jails (6) On the streets v) Deinstitutionalization of these people is a main goal because being institutionalized most of your life creates feelings of dependency, despair, and hopelessness vi) Mentally ill people should receive treatment in the least restrictive environment vii)Studies show that deinstitutionalization has not achieved its goals viii) Severe mental illness is difficult to treat effectively ix) Relapses are very common in serious mood disorders such as schizophrenia x) Less than a third of hospitalized schizophrenia patients are employed at one time xi) Sufficient funding for alternative noninstitutionalized care has not been provided in the United States yet xii)Community based treatment for the severely mental ill rarely takes place in the right circumstances xiii) A consequence of deinstitutionalization is that supervising these people with mental illness has become the responsibility of the police xiv) In medium to large departments about 7% of police contact involves mentally ill citizens xv)In one survey 9 out of 10 officers had responded to calls involving mentally ill citizens in the past month and 8 out of 10 had responded to 2 or more calls of the same nature in the same time period xvi) Another survey found that more than 33% of all police calls were for mental health related situations xvii) There are many questions that police are faced with on the discretion of what they should do in a mental health situation (1) Should they arrest? (2) Have the person hospitalized? (3) Offer on the spot counseling? (4) Refer them to a mental health agency? (5) Or return the person to a safe place? xviii) Research on these questions shows that police are reluctant to arrest mentally ill citizens unless their behavior presents danger to themselves or society xix) In general police try to avoid arrests in minor situations xx)A larger study shows that the presence of mental illness increase the chance of an arrest rather than decreasing it xxi) In a study by Teplin, he concluded that the mentally ill were being criminalized by law enforcement xxii) Another study looked at how officers responded to incidents involving mental ill citizens xxiii) 3 different jurisdictions with differing levels of mental health training xxiv) The findings were obvious, the jurisdictions with the most training were the most effective in crisis intervention and had far fewer arrests xxv) The Crisis Intervention Team was started by the Memphis Police Department and is now known as the “Memphis Model” xxvi) This program was created to increase the safety of society and the officers but at the same time redirecting those with mental illness to the mental health system instead of the judicial system xxvii) A study brought up the question as to whether or not CIT decreases the risk of violence xxviii) Police interactions and how they interact with mentally ill people is underscored the number of mentally ill offenders in prisons and jails xxix) There is an over representation of mentally ill people in prisons and jails xxx) The use of jail diversion programs through the use of community based alternatives could help xxxi) Growing research shows that these programs would be effective by providing needed services to these severely mentally ill people B) Domestic Disturbances a. In violent family situations the police are the first to be called b. Many questions run through an officers head when getting these calls i. What will they encounter? ii. Are the people armed? iii. Are they intoxicated or mentally unstable? iv. How much violence has already taken place? c. These calls are some of the most dangerous situations for officers d. A great deal of time is put towards investigating these disturbances e. Officers are at risk but these factors make these calls more dangerous i. Answering the alone ii. Trying to make an arrest alone iii. Verbal or physical threats made to the officer iv. A drunk person v. If the victim has a physical injury f. Evidence suggest that female officers are at greater risk of assaults in domestic violence calls g. 5 myths about domestic violence: i. Myth 1: Family Violence is only perpetrated by men 1. Reviews of over 200 studies shows that violence has comparable rates for both genders. Supporting the “gender symmetry” of violence 2. Some studies suggest that this symmetry is only applied to less serious aggression 3. 2 conclusions a. Domestic violence prevention could be more helpful if men and women were getting programs and classes about the subject b. The effectiveness of offender treatment would be more helpful if both offenders had programs to address assaults ii. Myth 2: Family violence is confined to mentally disturbed or sick people 1. Normal people are usually the ones to commit these crimes 2. People hear about the crazy things that people do and think “that person has to be crazy” or “omg that is sick” but normal people do these crimes just as often iii. Myth 3: family violence is confined to poor people 1. Violence and abuse are more common among lower socioeconomic families because of the stress they are under 2. There are risks associated with poverty associated with the risk of violence a. Unemployment b. Limited education c. Sparse social support iv. Myth 4: battered women like being hit; otherwise, they would leave 1. Violence is committed by males and females 2. Females are more easily hurt than males 3. Women do not stay because they like being hit 4. Learned helplessness explains why women tend to stay in these abusive relationships 5. Women stay because they feel like they have nowhere to go and they are not educated about all the services that are out there to help them 6. They also stay because they feel like they can’t leave because they will have no money or they have kids and need a safe place for the kids v. Myth 5: alcohol and drug use are the real causes of violence in the home 1. Most studies do find a comparable relationship between drinking and violence and males 2. As many as half of these incidents have involved drugs or alcohol 3. Studies found that men who drink more than 4 drinks at one time at least once a month are 3 times higher to commit domestic violence a. This pattern was also true for women 4. Morton Bard created the project on crisis prevention for domestic violence a. It started in New York City b. 9 black officers and 9 white officers were trained c. It focused on teaching officers how to properly intervene in domestic violence without making arrests d. The training lasted for a month e. For 2 years all the domestic violence calls were answered by only the officers who had been trained f. The project concentrated on 6 outcomes: i. Decreases in family disturbances ii. Drop in repeat calls from the same family iii. A reduction of homicides in the precinct iv. Decline in homicides among family members v. Reduction in assaults in the precinct vi. A decrease in injuries among police officers g. The project only affected 2 of these outcomes i. Fewer assaults ii. And less officer injuries h. Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment i. Police officers responses were assigned to arresting the batterer, ordering one of the parties to leave, and giving the couple advice to reduce the violence immediately ii. Offending was reduced by 50% when someone was arrested C) Hostage Negotiation a. A study of 120 hostage related incidents found that the perpetrator used a barricade to separate himself and the police b. 4 types of hostage incidents i. Persons suffering a mental illness 1. Hostage takers have a history of depression, schizophrenia, or serious mental illness 2. They feel powerless or angry 3. Pose a high risk of suicide 4. They try to force the police to kill them. Known as suicide by cop ii. Trapped criminal 1. Takes anyone who is available and bargains for freedom iii. Takeover of prisons 1. Inmates who capture prison guards or other inmates iv. Terrorism 1. Use violence or the threat of violence “to achieve a social, political, or religious aim in a way that does not obey the traditional rules of war” c. Bioterrorism: biological weapons such as viruses and bacteria are used or threatened d. Stockholm syndrome: involves mutually positive feelings between the hostages and their kidnappers e. Hostage negotiators try to take advantage of the situation by becoming part of the situation 6) The Police Officers Job a) The major duties for police are: i) Enforcing the law: investigating complaints, arresting suspects, and attempting to prevent crime ii) Maintaining order: intervening in family and neighborhood disputes, keeping traffic moving, noise levels down, keeping rowdy people off of the streets iii) Providing services: giving medical assistance, finding missing people, helping stranded motorists, escorting funerals, and getting cats out of trees b) Police work under a zerotolerance policy i) Zerotolerance policy: demands that officers concentrate more time on apprehension and arrest activities c) 2 advantages of police doing social services: i) There is no feasible alternative to using the police ii) Providing these services the police create a positive identity in the community 7) Stress and the Police a) Multiple duties of police officers may lead to feelings of stress, personal conflicts, and psychological problems b) Criticism of the police leaves the officers spouse and kids feeling isolated and segregated c) Most common categories of stress: i) Physical and psychological threats ii) Evaluation systems iii) Organizational problems and lack of support d) Stress can lead to the officers to feel burnt out i) Burnout: a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment 8) PoliceCommunity Relations a) Police officers feel like they love in a fishbowl b) Performance is constantly being reviewed c) Racial profiling has become a very big issue for the police and the community does not like it, especially minorities i) Driving while black is very well known ii) Police are more likely to pull over African Americans rather than a white person d) The use of excessive force and police brutality has also become a very big issue today e) An important innovation in police work is community based policing f) Community policing contains 6 basic parts: i) Neighborhood orientation: officers become friends with the residents ii) Increased geographic responsibility: officers regularly walk a beat and become highly visible iii) Structured response to calls for police service: emergency calls are handled by a special response team iv) Proactive, problemorientated approach: more effort is devoted to crime prevention v) Brokering more community resources for crime prevention vi) Analysis of crime problems: enables officers to focus their attention on the highst risk areas by computer technology