9/14 Notes 302-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hall on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 302-001 at George Mason University taught by Nicole DelVecchio Shelton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Delinquency in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Social Control Social Control rules through the government or Religion Social Control is about guilty vs innocent rather than right vs wrong Against greater good or maker The correction system ranges from federal prison state prison and jail The difference between prison and jail is the length of time Prison is usually more than a year while jail is spent less than 12 months Inmate Population Federal10 State20 Jailbetween 89 Rest are on probation or parole Corrections have 4 primary reasons this will be on the quiz PWP Retributionquoteye for an eye quotyou do this I do this IncapacitationRemoval of a person from society RehabilitationTreat them so they can go back to society Deterrence targets general or specialspecific individual Making an example out of you Deters criminals from repeating crimes Deters the public from making creating the same crimes as others 0 The 2 most talked about reasons are Rehabilitation and Incapacitation 0 Some laws have a 3 strike system This means that if you offend 3 times you can have anywhere between 25 years to life in prison 0 Society is moving back towards rehabilitation because incapacitation creates more crime 0 Laws are created because one thing happens and society wants to protect it from happening again 0 Some laws are created because it of the cost effect For example some prisoners can cost up to 30000 a year to stay in prison Restorative Justice Make up for the harm you have done quotRepair the damage Example stealing someone s heirlooms and having to sit in front of the family and having to face that family face to face Types of sentencing 1 2 DeterminantDetermine amount of time Indeterminate ndeterminate amount of time o Determinant Mandatory minimum sentenceJudge cannot give you less than the minimum 0 This sentencing is important bc you see indeterminate across the state The judge determines the length of time you spend in prison 0 Lawyers fought this type of sentencing bc blacks were spending 10x time in prison then whites who committed the same crime 0 This type of sentencing is harsher because it causes longer sentencing For example before this type of sentencing was in place normally people could be in prison for up to 2 months now they are in prison for up to 24 months Truth Sentencing Clinton initiative says quotOffenders in federal prison have to serve 85 of their sentence No matter how good you are you must at least serve 85 At first the states were not on board with this but Clinton threatened to pull funding unless they went with this program Most states joined but not all This puts a very strong stance on how long people are in quotYou do the crime you serve the time Corrections as a complex system Prisons Probation Parole GPS monitoring In home confinement work release center half way houses treatment programs work release programs drug courts and other courts are all a part of the corrections system Code of Hammurabi Earliest system put together to punish people This started in the early 3100 BC Draconian CodePunishments are excessively harsh First rules put in place where punishment was the same for everyone 12 tables Law makers made into slves Churches would often go against the state and would sometimes help our hide away individuals because the punishment was too harsh Robert Franshawe was punished for stabbing someone They believed that by dragging him in a cart tearing his flesh burning him and cutting off his body parts and having them dragged across the city was fair punishment The first penitentiary was built in 1830 The penitentiary was built to help punish people Prisons in the 1830s were holding people until their sentences Then they would let them out Conditions were very bad health and sick were placed together wardens were selling their services and the strong was preying on the weak Social Contract Contract between the person and the government Key peoples Caesar Beccaria Father of criminology He was from Italy He wrote quotCrimes and Punishment Real aim of punishment should be utility This is for the betterment of the whole Only punish in a way that is beneficial 0 quotLack of rationality Crime matching the level of punishment Jeremy Bentham o EnglishCriminal Law 0 Created the quotHedonic Calculus o Bentham Claims you can categorize punishment by pleasure or pain 0 He developed penitentiaries 0 He developed a prison and called it panoptical where the center of the building is circular John Howard 0 Birth of Penitentiary 0 He was a sheriff 0 He was concerned about the poor o In 1773 he visited places where people were being housed in what was considered a prison 0 He was shocked to see that many ofthe jailers were working for free They were not paid regularly or if at all Sometimes the inmates would have to quotbuyquot their way out and that is how some of the jailers were paid o If you were given a seven year sentence you would most likely die due to the conditions 0 He drafted the pen act that had 4 main principles 1 Secure and sanitize 2 Systematic 3 Abolition of all fees 4 Reformatory regiment 0 He wanted to base it on reforming morality The Pennsylvania System 0 Created to serving others and working hard mixed with solitary confinement o Congregant system Held in isolation at night and working in silence during the day 0 Contact Labor systemHelped inmates to work for their incarceration Prisons would take some or all of the money back at the end 0 The south was using a leasing system inmates were leaded out to contractors Prisoners were sued as field labors quotslavesquot Many of them would pick cotton 0 California did some leasing for a while but a law was created saying inmates were not allowed to be used Reformatory movement 0 Questioned pen Movement 0 Worried this is now a problem bc they are coming out worse than they went in o The Marx system was created 0 Marx system is a series of rewards given to inmates as they traverse in the system 0 Tickets are given out for good behavior and they can cash them in for rewards o Inmates work better w systems of rewards Zebulon Brockway Comes up w a system Elmira reformatory Used the Marx system Failure was seen as a weakness on the managementpoor administration not problems w concept Criminal behavior is not the result of free will 0 Criminals cannot control their conditions such as Living and their family 0 Criminals can be treated to have crime free lives 4 ideas were implemented 1 Parole 2 Probation 3 Indeterminate Sentencing 4 Juvenile Courts Medical model you don t feel well you go to the doctor and do what the doctor says 0 At the end of the treatment you should feel better 0 1950s became era of treatment 0 The new penologyprisons began using group therapy behavior modifications shock therapy individual counseling psychotherapy as treatments 0 Recidivism was at an alltime low National Academy ReportMain goal is to argue for sentence reduction will be on quiz 1 ProportionalityCriminal sentencing should be proportionate to the seriousness of the crime 2 Parsimony Punishment should not exceed the minimum need to achieve its legit purpose 3 Citizenshipthe conditions and consequences of imprisonment should not be so severe or lasting as to violate ones fundamental status as a member of society 4 Social justiceas public institutions in a democracy prisons should promote the general wellbeing of all members of society
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