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First week of notes: Earth Science

by: Brielle Minnefield

First week of notes: Earth Science EAR 105 - M001

Brielle Minnefield
GPA 3.2
Earth Science
C. Junium

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About this Document

The notes posted are the first week of notes in EAR 110 (Geology). The notes contain information about earth science, matter, minerals, and atoms.
Earth Science
C. Junium
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brielle Minnefield on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EAR 105 - M001 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by C. Junium in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Earth Science in Earth Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 09/15/15
EAR 1 10 Geoloav All sciences that seek to understand Earth is Earth science Understanding of Earth s neighbors in space Earth science includes Geology study of Earth Oceanography study of the ocean Meteorology study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and Astronomy study of the universe Natural Hazards Resources People in uence Earth processes Geologic time span of time since Earth s formation Earth is 46 billion years old and the concept of recent is different Geologic time scale divides history of Earth into different units Science assumes the natural world is consistent and predictable Goal of science is to I discover patterns in nature and 2 to use the knowledge to predict Assumption of consistency OVER specified time and space scales Predictability under particular known conditions with known percent error ex forecast For a hypothesis to be visible it must be testable falsifiable Any idea can be a hypothesis tentative or untested explanation theory tested and confirmed hypothesis paradigm a theory that explains a large of interrelated aspects of the natural world Scientific Method gather facts through observation formulate hypothesis and theories Scientific knowledge is gained through following systematic steps collecting facts developing a hypothesis conduct experiments reexamine the hypothesis and accept modify or reject Theories that withstand examination Totally unexpected occurrences Origin of Earth most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets forms essentially the same time Nebular Theory solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula nebula was composed mostly of hydrogen and helium Formation of Earth s layered structure as Earth formed the decay of radioactive elements and heat from high velocity impacts caused the temperature to increase Iron and Nickel began to melt and sink towards the center lighter rocky components oated outward toward the surface Gaseous material escaped from Earth s interior to produce the primitive atmosphere The Earth is a system of systems comprising multiple interactions processes between interlocking spheres hydrosphere atmosphere biosphere geosphere and cryosphere Hydrosphere 1 ocean the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere nearly 71 of Earth s surface about 97 of Earth s water also includes fresh water found in streams lakes and glaciers as well as that found underground Atmosphere thin tenuous blanket of air one half lies below 56 km 35 miles Biosphere includes all life concentrated near the surface in a zone that extends from the ocean oor upward for several km into the atmosphere Geosphere solid Earth extends from surface to center of the planet and largest of Earth s four spheres Solid Earth based on compositional differences it consists of the crust mantle and core divisions of the outer portion are based on how much materials behave Crust Earth s relatively thin rocky outer skin continental crust less dense many rock types granitic oceanic crust dense basaltic rock Mantle solid rocky shell more than 82 of Earth s volume upper mantle lithosphere entire crust and uppermost mantle Asthenosphere relatively soft layer lower mantle very hot strengthens with depth Core iron nickel alloy outer core liquid layer Earth s magnetic field inner core solid Plate Tectonics Earth s lithosphere is broken into slabs lithospheric plates that are in continuous motion Plates move very slowly 3 types of plate boundaries divergent plates pull apart convergent plates move together transform fault plates slide past each other Continents at features that avg 08 km 05 mi in elevation granitic rocks Ocean basins avg 38 km 28 mi below sea level basaltic rocks Second day Notes Matter and Minerals Mineral natural inorganic solid possess an orderly internal structure of atoms have a definite chemical composition solid regular crystalline framework constant predictable chemical formula physical properties Rock any naturally occurring solid mass of mineral or mineral like matter Granitic rock quartz mineral hornblende mineral feldspar mineral I rocks are aggregates of minerals Atoms smallest particles of matter Nucleus central part of an atom that contains protons positive electrical charges and neutrons neutral electrical charges Electron shells surround the nucleus contain electrons negative electrical charges Ionic bonds mixed behaviors very weak borrowing or stealing Covalent bonds complete merging and sharing of electrons outer shell I insulators Metallic bonds free ow of electrons I exible conductors Valence shell atoms outermost shell Octet rule atoms gain lose or share electrons until their valence shells have 8 electrons Chemical bond transfer or sharing of electrons to achieve full valence shell Atomic the number of protons in an atom s nucleus Ions positively or negatively charged atoms due to electron gain or loss Elements basic building blocks of minerals over 100 are known defined by their number of protons and groups of the same type of atoms Physical properties of minerals habit common crystal shape luster appearance in re ected light color streak color of mineral in powdered form hardness ability to resist scratching or abrasion cleavage tendency to break along planes of weak bonding fracture random pattern of breakage specific gravity mineral density and tenacity resistance to cutting breaking bending and deformation Other properties taste smell elasticity malleability double refraction magnetism feel reaction with hydrochloric acid Rock forming minerals only a few dozen most abundant atoms in Earth s crust are oxygen 466 by weight and silicon 277 by weight 8 elements compose most rock forming minerals oxygen 0 silicon Si aluminum Al iron Fe calcium Ca sodium Na potassium K magnesium Mg Rock forming silicates most common mineral group contain the silicon oxygen tetrahedron 4 oxygen atoms surrounding a much smaller silicon atom combines with other atoms to form the various silicate structures Groups based on tetrahedron arrangement olivine independent tetrahedral Pyroxene group tetrahedral are arranged in chains Amphibole group tetrahedral are arranged in double chains micas tetrahedral are arranged in sheets 2 types of mica are biotite and muscovite feldspars 3D network of tetrahedral most abundant group of minerals in Earth s crust and quartz 3D network of tetrahedral Nonsilicate minerals major groups I oxides sulfides carbonates halides native elements Carbonates a major rock forming group found in the rocks limestone and marble Halite and gypsum are found in sedimentary rocks Many have economic value Renewable can be replenished in relatively short time spans ex corn wind water etc Nonrenewable Earth has fixed quantities oil aluminum natural gas coal Mineral resources mineral resources are occurrences of useful minerals that will eventually be extracted Ore deposits are concentrations of metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit Economic factors may change and in uence a resource


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