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Ch. 9 Foundations of Group Behavior

by: Alora Lornklang

Ch. 9 Foundations of Group Behavior MGMT 3720

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Business > MGMT 3720 > Ch 9 Foundations of Group Behavior
Alora Lornklang
GPA 3.5

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These notes will cover a combination of the lecture and the textbook.
Organizational Behavior
Dr. James D. Powell
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 9: Foundations of Group Behavior 1. Define group, and distinguish the different types of groups.  Group o Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come  together to achieve particular objectives.   Groups can be either formal or informal.  o Formal groups  A Designated work group defined by an organization’s structure.  o Informal group  A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally  determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contract.   Social identity theory o Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves  members of groups.  o People have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group  because their self­esteem gets tied into the performance of the group.  o Social identities help us understand who we are and where we fit in with  people.   Ingroup favoritism  o Perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other  people, and people not in our group as all the same.   Several characteristics make a social identity important to a person o Similarity o Distinctiveness o Status  o Uncertainty reduction  2. Identify the five stages of group development.   Five­stage group development model o The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming,  performing, and adjourning.   Forming stage o The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty   Storming stage o The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup  conflict   Norming stage o The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness  Performing stage o The Fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully  functional   Adjourning stage o The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized  by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.   Temporary groups with deadlines have their own unique sequencing of actions o Their first meeting sets the group’s direction  o The first phase of group activity is one of inertia o A transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its  allotted time o This transition initiates major changes o A second phase of inertia follows the transition, and  o The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. This pattern is called the punctuated­equilibrium model  A set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves  transitions between inertia and activity.   The punctuated­equilibrium model characterizes groups as  exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief  revolutionary changes triggered primarily by members’ awareness  of time and deadlines.  3. Show how role requirements change in different situations.   Role  o A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a  given position in a social unit.   Role Perception  o An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given  situation.   Role Expectations  o How others believe a person should act in a given situation.  o Psychological contract  An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects  from an employee and vice versa.   Role Conflict o A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role  expectations.  4. Demonstrate how norms and status exert influence on an individual’s behavior.   Norms o Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the  group’s members o Performance norms o Appearance norms o Social arrangement norms o Resource allocation norms  Conformity  o The adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group  Reference groups o Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with  those whose norms individuals are likely to conform   Deviant Workplace behavior o Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in  so doing, threatens the well­being of the organization or its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility. o Production, property, political, personal aggression = types of deviant  workplace behavior  Status o A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by  others. o Status characteristics theory  Differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups.   Status is derived from one of three sources: o The power a person wields over others o A person’s ability to contribute a group’s goals o An individual’s personal characteristics.   Status and Norms o High status individuals often have more freedom to deviate from norms  Status and Group interaction o High status people are often more assertive  Status inequity o Perceived inequity creates disequilibrium and can lead to resentment and  corrective behavior.   Status and Stigmatization  o Stigma by association   5. Show how group size affects group performance.   Group size affects the group’s overall behavior.  o Large groups are good for gaining diverse input.  o Smaller groups are better doing something with input.   Social loafing:  o The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working  collectively than when working individually.   Synergy­ in a group, each contributing what their best at (opposite of social  loafing) 6. Contrast the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups.   Cohesiveness o The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are  motivated to stay in the group.   7. Explain the implications of diversity for group effectiveness.   Diversity o The degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different  from, one another.   Diversity appears to increase group conflict, especially in the early stages of a  group’s tenure, which often lowers group morale and raises dropout rates.   However if members can weather their differences, over time diversity may help  them be more open­minded and creative to do better.  8. Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision­making.   Strengths of group decision making: o More complete information and knowledge o Increased diversity of views o Increased acceptance of solutions  Weaknesses of group decision making: o Time consuming o Conformity pressures o Dominance of a few members o Ambiguous responsibility  o Groupthink  Situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group  from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views.  o Groupshift  A change between a group’s decision and an individual decision  that a member within the group would make; the shift can be  toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position.   Group member rationalize any resistance to the  assumptions they’ve made  Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily  express doubts about any of the group’s shared views  Members who have doubts or differing points of view seek  to avoid deviating from what appears to be group  consensus   There is an illusion of unanimity   Effectiveness and efficiency of group decisions: o Accuracy o Speed o Creativity  o Acceptance  9. Compare the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, and the normal group  technique.   Interacting groups o Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face.   Brainstorming o An idea­generation process that specifically encourages any and all  alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.  o In a brainstorming session:  The group leader states the problem clearly  Members then “free­wheel” as many alternatives as they can  No criticism is allowed   One idea stimulates others, and group members are encouraged to  “think the unusual”     Nominal group technique  o A group decision­making method in which individual members meet face  to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.  o Group members are all physically present, but members operate  independently  o The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits a  group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does  an interacting group. 


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