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Date Created: 08/08/14
Structures and Functions of Nervous System Cells 8814 704 Pl Early obstacles for studying the nervous system cells Size 1050 microns in diameter impossible to see without a microscope o 1 microscope invented at end of 17 century by Antony van Leeuwenhoek 16321723 The consistency of nervous tissuecells is like Je O o Needed a method to harden the tissue without disturbing the structure o Needed an instrument to make very thin sections of tissue not until early 19 century Transparency of tissue under a microscope o Needed a method to stain cells 1 cell in nervous system to be discovered was from the cerebellum Nissl Staininq stain bonds to acidic particles in cell bodies Golqi Staininq stain binds to heavy metals in about 1 o of all nervous system cells Camillo Golgi published the 1 paper on silver nitrate staining method in 1873 He believed strongly in the Reticular Theory of the brain Reticular Theory neurites of all cells are fused into each other forming a continuous reticulum the brain is an exception from Cell Theory Cajal and the Neuronal Doctrine Santiago Cajal improved Golgi staining Caja s 1 paper was on the bird cerebellum published in 1888 He found no evidence of Gogi s Reticular Theory Neuronal Doctrine neurons communicate by contact not continuity Neuronal Structure Typical cell organelles Membrane Mitochondria Nucleusnucleolus Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Microtubulesmicrofilaments Ribosomes etc Specialized organelles of neurons Axon Synapse Axonal hillock Dendrtes Synaptic vesicles Myelin sheath Sensory neurons bring information to central nervous system from the body Association cells associate sensory and motor activity in central nervous system Motor neurons send signals from brain and spinal chord to muscles Neurons can be classified according to Number of neurites Structure of dendrites 0 Ex pyramidal cells stellate cells Func on o Sensory neurons carry messages to brain 0 Motor neurons carry messages to muscles 0 Interneurons connect cells Neurotransmitter used by the neuron Effects of neurotransmitter excitatoryinhibitory Chemical Composition of Neurons Water and ions Cell body is 23 water Water molecules are polar more positively charged on one side and more negatively charged on the other Salt NaC is ionized in water solution Na and Cl Ion Intracellular Extracellular Potassium K 400 microliters 20 microliters Sodium Na 50 microliters 440 microliters Chloride Cl 40 microliters 560 microliters Calcium Ca 01 microliters 10 microliters Organic ions proteins amino acids nucleic many few acids In a resting cell the inside is negatively charged while the outside is positively charged Cells contain 4 major families of organic molecules Sugars Proteins amino acids 25 known 20 essential for metabolism Fatty acidslipids Nucleic acids 8814 704 PM 8814 704 PM