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SOC 2010 Chapter 8 Notes

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by: kyle.gosland

SOC 2010 Chapter 8 Notes Soc 2010

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Chapter 8 Lecture and Reading Notes, and notes from the video in class "The House You Live In"
Introduction to sociology
Mary Barr
Class Notes
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Jacob Edwards

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by kyle.gosland on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 2010 at Clemson University taught by Mary Barr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 8: Race and Ethnicity  Race and Ethnicity  Race: social category based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people  Ethnicity: social category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, etc.  Minority Group: social category whose members suffer from unequal treatment  Race is a Social Construction  Reification: we create social reality through this communal process by which we make things real  Boundaries, gendered behavior, race  A boundary between residential properties that doesn’t exist in the real world  Social Meaning + Private Action + Public Policy = Social Construction  Social Meaning  Racism: ideology about superiority of one racial or ethnic group to another; justifies inequality  Private Action  Prejudice: attitude about a group of people; founded on generalization and stereotypes  Discrimination: action or behavior that results in unequal treatment of individuals because of their membership in a certain social group  Public Policy  Sentencing disparities, redlining in real estate, census asking about race  Racial Formation: the process by which social, political, economic forces determine racial categories and in turn shape racial meanings  Being educated is (in part) a process of identifying what’s real from what’s imaginary and what’s been reified  Symbolic Ethnicity: ethnic identity only relevant on specific occasions and doesn’t impact everyday life significantly  Situational Ethnicity: ethnic identity that can be shown or hidden depending on the situation  Heritage tourism is becoming more popular with ease of international travel; people traveling to see the places their ancestors came from  Prejudice is a way of thinking, discrimination is acting on those prejudiced thoughts  Embedded Identity: elements of identity generated through others’ perceptions of our physical traits  Passing: presenting yourself as a member of a different racial or ethnic group than what you were born into (light skin people acting “white”)  Miscegenation: interracial relationships  Affirmative Action: policies trying to make up for past discrimination by making it easier for minorities to get things  Genocide: deliberate extermination of a racial, ethnic, cultural group (WWII Nazi Germany)  Population Transfer: removal of a group of people from the place they live (Native Americans)  Internal Colonialism: exploitation of minority groups within the dominant group’s borders  Segregation: separation of groups by race or ethnicity  Assimilation: minorities becoming more like the majority; better social cohesion  Central idea behind USA being a “melting pot”  Racial Assimilation: caused by marriage across racial boundaries  Cultural Assimilation: caused by minorities practicing culture of dominant group  Pluralism: intergroup relations that encourage racial and ethnic variation in society Video: “The House You Live In”  After WWII veterans needed long term housing for their families  Levittown was an all white suburban housing development  Roosevelt was all white then when blacks moved into the neighborhood market values dropped  Racial Wealth Gap  Homeownership has largely benefitted white families  History of discrimination: FHA gave loans to white homebuyers  White families got assistance for down payments and was easier for them to get credit and loans  Blacks tend to be more recent homeowners; whites had owned for a long time  Median wealth of white households 13 times higher than black households  National Fair Housing Alliance Study  2003-2005 in 12 metropolitan areas  planted prospective “buyers”  73 real estate firms  Compared how realtors treat “clients”  Black and Latino assigned higher financial qualifications  Rate of steering was 87% (told to avoid certain neighborhoods based on race)  Differences in quality of service (number of homes shown, some were refused appointments or rescheduled) Race Notes Continued (Monday, March 7)  3 Things Everyone Should Know About Race  Biological Myth  Skin color is only skin deep  Definition varies across time and place  Biological Myth  No genetic basis  Humans are 99.99% genetically identical  Most variation isn’t between people who look different (geography is more important factor)  85% of variation occurs within geographically distinct groups  15% occurs between different geographically separate groups  Skin color is only skin deep  Shallow differences, don’t have any biological relevance  Melanin determines skin color  Protects skin from UV rays  Need sun to absorb Vitamin D  More melanin where sun is more intense  Genes for skin color unrelated to athletic ability, musical talent, intelligence  Share ability for speech, abstract thinking  Racial definitions vary across time and place  Based on physical traits society chooses to value and devalue  Race changes, always in a shifting state  Whiteness (before WWII Jews weren’t considered white, Irish discriminated against)  In US hypo-descent (one drop rule): small amount of different race blood counts as minority race  Brazil: variety of “intermediate” races (doesn’t follow hypo-descent rule)  British use “black” to refer to all nonwhites  Jamaican student didn’t know she was black until she got to the US (race changes by place)  North American Slavery Predates Race  In 1619, race wasn’t a distinct category, religion was more important  Colonization of the Americas created a need for more labor and more land  Racialization of Africans and Native Americans  US founded on fact that all men are created equal, race helps to deny people basic rights and dehumanize them (blacks and Native Americans thought to be “inferior”  Once slavery ended, rationalization of racial superiority continued  Racial ideas are used to justify slavery, Jim Crow laws, mass incarceration  Does Race Matter?  Slavery (1865), Jim Crow Laws (1954), Civil Rights Acts (1964, 1965, 1968)  Socially frowned upon to say degrading things in public  80% of whites deny racial discrimination exists  Believe “reverse discrimination” is a problem  Majority of blacks say racial discrimination is a problem  US Census Data  Occupations: minorities underrepresented in higher level occupations  Gov. Leaders: minorities underrepresented  Criminal Justice: treats minorities differently  Health: minorities have worse healthcare, shorter life expectancy  Education: Asians and whites have more success in high school and college  Income and Wealth: differences in homeownership, jobs, etc.


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