ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #7
ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #7 ARCH 2243 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Early Modern Court Society: The French Baroque Palace and Landscape th I. East Façade of the Louvre – Paris, France – 17 cent – Claude Perrault – Baroque (academic classicism) The Louvre Site oFrench kings started living on the island but if things got tough they would move inland in a bailey and keep style residence oNow the keep is not there oThe walls are now inhabitable oMore classical oTuileries palace to close off the square oLong long gallery (full of paintings) along the river oNew baroque façade on the east oBecomes a museum in 1806 instead of being a palace oSweeping vista on the Seine River Context oTrue French Baroque = academic classicism Baroque from Louis the XIV New baroque = nothing from Italy oCentralized state Ruler Idealogy oControlled design = undiluted centrality of the monarch oLess diluted by distractions Theory oTwo story design oTriangular pediment for above the entrance and that center section steps out a little to create the umph for that area but the entablature is consist to connect it all so there is a little extra but no separation or big broken pieces Same sort of thing with the two ends oGo to Italian precedents only when Vitruvius was unclear oCorrect abuses of the Baroque – to directly to antiquity (Vitruvius) No convex or concave forms oBuilding does not have an attic story Proportion would say you should have the three parts This is not convenient to ideal French modernities because you shouldn’t have a story above the kings head If something does not fit with your area then its not bad to take it out Double columns that are free standing and really far from the wall Going back to the greek – instead of a dipdural peristyle there would be one row of columns and then engaged columns on the exterior walls of the cella to still keep the look of columns on both sides of you but more space to walk around He says he is just creating more space This is his “6 manner of the temple” Now surpassing Italian precedent o5 part composition Dominant central frontispiece Regressive wings on both sides End pavilions on both sides Style oThe Colonnade oWhy isn’t this just Renaissance? There is a mot around the palace – for defense The scale makes it baroque – human scale and anatomy is pushed away now By moving the columns on the top half way out you create intense light and shadows oThe columns are beautifully detailed with fluting and entasis and great Corinthian columns th II. Versailles – Versailles, France – 17 cent. – Louis Le Vau, Charles Le Brun, Jules Hardouin-Marsart – Baroque Context oAbsolutist king seeks absolute control over his court Phases of Construction oPhase 1 – French mannerist style hunting lodge oPhase 1 ½ - Andre Le Notre reorients the grounds = hunting grounds + petit parc oPhase 2 – academic classicism Baroque style – new palace envelope the garden side by Le Vau and Le Brun oPhase 3 – keeping the nobility and the world under his thumb – addition of the hall of mirrors and long palace wings by Hardouin-Mansart Style oStill block like and geometric oStill has arcaded ground floor but it has pilasters instead of columns on that middle section oHas an attic level oMore gracious and delicate detail Ruler Ideology oLikes to show himself off / be present to the people oVery charismatic oThe old palace in the center is all the kings apartments oThe right side of the new part is all for the queen oThe left side of the new part Is all the state rooms (public space) Very strange to have a public area so so so close to the kings apartments Landscape oHall of Mirrors – one side of the room is all mirrors and the other side is all windows The mirrors reflect the whole landscape A sense of infinity is made with the windows in the mirror this was a feasting hall the entertainment room now it is a ballroom the mirrors reflect the infinite dominion of the growing French empire oArchitecture + Landscape combine as an irreducible expression of absolute monarchy The way the garden landscape keeps going and going is a symbol of how the king wants to grow the french empire bigger and bigger and bigger Axis mundi right through the kings chamber Infinite expansion of gardens 3-2-16 Spiritual and Material Empowerment: Architecture in Protestant Europe I. St. Paul’s Covent Garden – London, England – 17 cent – Inigo Jones – Renaissance Palladian Context oElimination of the cult of saints oSacraments: transubstantiation (complete change) vs consubstantiation (half change) oBible in vernacular languages oReduce hierarchical relationship between congregation and ministers oFreedom of conscious oReflect the Anglican preferences of the patron Low church – more protestant ideals, handsome barn High church – like ideas of Rome and how the church service is done and also how the outside looks Façade oDoes not exude catholic hierarchy oPrecedent Imperial Roman temples Pantheon Empowered Congregations oThis is more about assembly rather than a long nave for a processional oAuditorium arrangement centralize the interior space Galleries have seating in them – add more centralization All the seating faces each other No pews 3-2-16 Minister would be somewhere in the middle talking to everyone around him Performing the Word oPulpit is raised a little bit oEveryone is focused on the speaker and the drama of it Light and Color oShould not distract people oWhite washed paint = purity oWindows aren’t stain glass but just white clear light coming in II. Blenheim Palace – England – 18 cent. – Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor – Baroque Context oEnglish Baroque – restoration oEnglish nobility and gentry with a tasted for royal grandeur oFlat roof oColossal pilaster odefeat of louis the 14 – John Churchill – 1 duke of Marlborough oEmphasis on military deeds not himself oGarden façade Corinthian portico oBorderline celebrating the king even though that shouldn’t be its main focus Plan oLike Palladian design but this is much much bigger Style oLargest country house in England oPavilions varied forms oPowerful relief effects oEvery space is a character in the drama front oFineal – finished look on top of the corners Landscape 3-2-16 oMilitary garden – with turrets oEnglish garden takes place on the right side oWants a lake with a bridge over it … show the military battle Visual dialogues … no radiating streets or alleys or pathways 3-4-16 The Natural World as Paradigm in Late Baroque and Rococo Architecture th I. Vierzehnheiligen – Germany (Bavaria) – 18 cent. – Balthasar Newmann – Rococo Context o“Fourteen Saints” church offered pilgrims a place to be healed Façade oBefore the façade was worked out in plains oNow the façade is a little more of an undulating surface but with no vertical breaks oVery tall towers (kind of gothic) which helps it be more visible from a distance Dynamism – a series of interacting centers of engery oIn plan free open flow of space with a lot of light bi- axial + latin cross bi axial = two axises coming from a point in the center of the area strong syncopation transcept before – a significant dome above it now – a meshing of two big domes cross over this area o Double shell space of infinite luminosity o Wall piers They are like flying buttresses but on the interior Color o Pale color – pastel look o A sort of blushing face color bringing health and senses to mind 3-4-16 This is strange for a church since usually health and happiness is felt due to the fact that heaven can heal but here the actual space has a sense of healing Nature o Shrine is fairly large with a dirt spot where the little peasant boy who was healed stood o Membrane like – porous like
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