Lecture - Sept. 15th
Lecture - Sept. 15th 11883 - GEO 105 - 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11883 - GEO 105 - 01 at Grand Valley State University taught by Tara Ann Kneeshaw in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Living with the Great Lakes in Geology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Living with the Great Lakes Notes from class on September 15th 2015 Review 0 Alkalinity The water39s capacity to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic O 0 Without alkalinity the lake would be almost all acids ranging from weak to strong Which would be dangerous not just for us when it comes to drinking water but also to the ecosystems living within the lakes Alkalinity of natural water is determined by the soil and bedrock through which it passes o Thankfully because of the amount of carbonates in our rocks surrounding the Great Lakes what happens to the acid is sometimes called buffering capacity or essentially neutralizing the acid with the carbonates found the rocks especially in limestone 0 Sources of natural alkalinity are rocks including limestone that contain carbonate bicarbonate and hydroxide compounds Limestone contains calcite CaCOS which is also the prominent ingredient in Alkaseltzer and Tums When you add acid to calcite you get the fizzy and gas sounds related to if you were opening a bottle of soda because of the amount of acid and carbonate ions COZ Ions common in water include Calcium magnesium chloride sodium potassium etc Soil as well can become acidic over time due to runoff from local crops and lack of buffering capacity To cure this some farmers add limes to their soil because the amount of pH in limes can counteract the acid in the soil Living organisms especially aquatic life function best in a pH range of 6090 Rain water for example has an average pH of 53 57 acidity You can measure the alkalinity of the water by taking a sample of lake water and slowly adding acid to it and watching how long it takes for the pH to drop to a lower range 2030 0 Top Hat Review Questions 0 Plant growth in lakes can be accelerated by introducing nutrients like and from fertilizer runoff from land during rain events I Nitrogen and Phosphorous Poor soil erosion control on construction sites and agricultural fields can lead to an increase in the amount of particular matter which can be quantitatively measured as I Turbidity Measures the amount of suspended solids in the water using a beam of light if and when the light gets defracted it can tell how large an object is and how thick When the water is packed with large particles it blocks the sunlight which in turn doesn39t allow the plant life to produce photosynthesis and leads to poor water quality o Sediment o On the upcoming field trips you ll most likely be testing the bottom of the lake by doing a grab sample A grab sample is basically using a device in the middle of the lake where most of the sediment has settled on the bottom as opposed to being constantly stirred up by waves on shore where you ll usually find larger rocks and pebbles and scraping the bottom of the lake grabbing the finer sediments such as clay silt and sand I You ll be checking to see what time of sediments you have and also check for organisms such as bloodworms which are midge fly larvae that can tell you what kind of food chain is going on in that area of the lake 0 Review the Connection between the Lakes 0 Elevations and Depths o 4 out of the 5 Great Lakes are at different elevations leading like a series of steps toward the Atlantic Ocean Northeast 0 Surface Elevation of the Lakes I L Superior 6011 ft and connects to L Huron by the St Mary s River I L Michigan and L Huron are considered a pair hence the 4 out of 5 above because they share water levels 5775 ft L Huron connects to Erie through the St Clair and Detroit river I L Erie 5692 ft Erie connects to L Ontario by the Niagara Falls which Ontario is at the base of I L Ontario 2433 ft From Lake Ontario the water goes through the St Lawrence River St Francis Lake St Louis Lake Montreal Harbor the Gulf of St Lawrence and out into the Atlantic 0 St Mary s River I A 60mile waterway that goes from Lake Superior through Lake George and drains into Lake Huron at two different spots 0 Lake Michigan I Lake Michigan because it is already pushed off to the side it can only receive its water from the Straits of Mackinac where it connects to Lake Huron o If for some reason in the future the two lakes become disconnected at the Straits Lake Michigan would be cut off from the Great Lakes and become extremely isolated 0 Lake St Clair I St Clair and the Detroit River lie on each side of Lake St Clair creating a 89mile long channel connecting L Huron to L Erie I Because the channel passes by major towns such as Detroit Warren and even Sarina Canada the amount of larger particles that enter begin to collect at the bottom and overtime the channel can become clogged with sediment This has effects on the water quality and even the flow of the river which can get very shallow at some points To fix this every so often we have to dig out the bottom of the channel making it deeper and easier for water from Lake Huron to flow through 0 Niagara River 0 Population The 35 mile long Niagara River connects L Erie to L Ontario Ontario then flows into the St Lawrence and converges with the Ottawa river near Montreal to follow into the Atlantic Ocean o It hasn t always been like this however 0 As the lakes and rivers kept flowing changes overtime have occurred and they still continue to change 0 The question we have to ask is if they start to change drastically and start affecting our ecosystems and way of life should we do something to counter the effect or should we let the water do it s own thing Should we involve ourselves 0 Population density is greatest near major lakes and rivers Most port cities contain large populations and always have 0 Water essentially dictated where we settled early in Michigan s history Places like Detroit and Chicago are major port cities because they have access to watenNays leading out to the Atlantic 0 Even inland cities are more populated near large rivers Grand Rapids for example is near the Grand River which empties out in Lake Michigan 0 Top Hat Review 0 is the water s capacity to resist changes in the pH that would make the water more acidic I Alkalinity o The following causes alkalinity in natural water Sodium carbonate Potassium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate or all of the above 0 All of the above Early Settlement of the Great Lakes Region 0 First inhabitants arrived 10000 years ago 0 Neat the time the ice melted from large glaciers Lakes were full and temperature were still cold 0 6000 years ago descendants of the first settlers were using copper from the south shore of Lake Superior and also began fishing and hunting notjust gathering o The copper left behind by the glaciers could be as large as a car 0 Early settlement would have been unpleasant Almost always winterlike conditions Things were only beginning to grow after the melting Slowly communities began forming 16th Century of Exploration European settlers were trying to find a route through the Great Lakes to the Orient East or Middle East 0 They estimated that the population of Native Americans was around 60170000 living in the region 0 Native people occupied widely among scattered villages and began farming the land for squash beans and tobacco I Now communities were making more permanent villages moving once or twice in a generation Usually when they would run out of resources 0 French Fur Trade 16341763 0 Century and a half of Michigan s life centered around fur trade 0 The chief markets were Sault Ste Marie Mackinac and Detroit As well as St Joseph and Grand River Valleys 0 French traders made alliances with Native Americans whose members has skills to hunt and trap at a commercial level I French traders exploited the Natives 100000 pelts were being shipped to Europe each year The most desired fur was beaver fur Making beavers almost extinct I The only thing that saved the beavers was the change in fashion trends overseas from furs to silks 0 After the fur trade declined farming became more important Michigan Fever began in the 1830 s The fertile soil and plenty of land led to the rise in population with people flocking to Michigan to gain land 0 1825 Erie Canal opened a new route to the Great Lakes and Detroit by creating a shortcut around Niagara Falls 0 1833 As people wanted more land to acquire Native Americans were removed by force and put west of the Mississippi I This paved the way for government land surveys and selling and thus increased the agricultural settlements I The land was divided into sections and townships most of which still apply today 0 The Lumbering Era I Earliest lumbering by French settlers for forts and trading posts I The British and later Americans used wood to build warships and merchant ships I In 1855 White Pine became the most sought after tree The industry for White Pine in the Lower Peninsula lasted until 1895 and in the Upper just 10 years longer Both peninsulas used up most of the White Pine I Today the bottom half of the Lower Peninsula is largely covered in hardwoods such as maple beech birch and oak In the middle and top of the Lower Peninsula is mostly pine and softwoods such as hemlock spruce and fir And the Upper Peninsula is a mixture of both
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