Lecture Notes Week 3
Lecture Notes Week 3 HIST 100
Popular in History of Western Civilization
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
History 100 Week 3 Lecture Notes 09152015 Forti cation Expansion and Transformation of the Western Tradition The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire Ancient Rome 753 BCE476 CE 0 Divided into two broad periods Roman Republic and Roman Empire 0 Mixing own native cultural forms with Greek Hellenistic inheritance Sense of historical mission most successful empire to date Enables geographic extension of GrecoRoman civilization 0 Both key station and crucial turning point in development of Western Civilization 0 Identi able form of government republic o No formal legal document or constitution 0 Established conditions of practice 0 Roman councils elected for two year terms with executive and judicial authority 0 Roman senate control over public expenditures Politics dominated by aristocrats Aristocrats patricians 23 of the population Plebeians 9798 of population had little power Opportunity for popular in uence but more oligarchic with small in uential groups Large amount of discontent because small number of aristocratic families control all of the senate and the majority of the population is kept out 0 Expansion of the Early Roman Republic 0 Latin Rights political marriage legal rights for all that come under Roman control Net gain for those incorporated into a successful system 0 Military success due to Roman manipular formation More exible and ability to adapt to different types of terrain Large reserve of soldiers Reinforces agrarian military society of Roman culture 0 00 Very limited literature trade and commerce Focus of military and agriculture in society Religious system parallel to Greeks Little concern with the afterlife Religion strengthened state identity and vise versa Aristocrats rotated in and out of political positions and religious positions to keep Gods satis ed Rome comes into con ict with Carthage Carthage is dominant neighboring power in today s North Africa Fight series of wars that become de ning for Rome Punic Wars I 1 Carthage attempts to seize port in modern day Sicily Roman defeats them and Carthage is bitter n 2 Carthage wants to expand their rule into Spain Rome felt threatened Hannibal led army of Carthage led army over the Alps with success and causes damage on Italian peninsula Roman uses delay tactics to save country and then eventually defeat Hannibal near Carthage Still bitter RomeCato is obsessed with competitor n 3 Romans victorious and seize Carthage and enslave the people of Carthage In Rome will never be the same set on course for further expansion 0 Expand further around almost entire Mediterranean Spain Macedonia Asia Carthage ln ux in the number of slaves employed on agricultural estates run by large patrician families Creates wealth and social inequality Leave small opportunity for small independent farmers to have a successful career Rise of equestrian class involved with commerce had the wealth and in uence of senators but prohibited from partaking in politics because of their involvement in commerce Large reliance upon slaves leave the owners helpless as far as innovation goes Romans viewed as crude and unre ned when compared to the Greeks Romans begin to adopt Greek traditions such as alphabet Eastern mystery cults tribes that promised peace in the afterlife prominent in the lowerclass Foreshadow of Christianity to come quotConquered Greece took captive her savage conqueror and brought her arts into rustic Latiumquot 0 Expansion brings con ict turmoil and instability of the republic Multiple slave revolts uprising led by Spartacus Political system still functioning but very unstable corruption through the government Petition allows anyone to become a Roman soldier a Not good because the soldiers are very easy to manipulate which leads to corruption in the military and government a More and more military leaders in roman politics a Political system becomes dominated by power hungry individuals Caesar and Pompeii become rivals 52 CE Caesar had immense power and military success 49 CE Caesar led army into the Rubicon river to engage in the civil war with Pompeii over the development that had taken place a lntimidated senate into giving him massive political power a Caesar is eventually assassinated Roman republic becomes a thing of the past and the Roman Empire takes its place 0 Octavian Caesar s nephew becomes heir and is given full power and given title quotAugustusquot Emperor of Rome dealing with military and kept the Republic in check 0 PaxRomana quotRoman Peacequot Roman republic becomes Roman empire and the political system stabilizes very little turmoil 200 years Golden age of Roman civilization Emperors continue to rule No set successorsno diagnostic struggles Rights of citizenship extended to outsiders Emperors could be someone who was not inherently wealthy Romans were master engineers a aqueducts still exist today a extensive system of roads used for postal and military routes and transportation Rome s greatest achievements n Coliseum n Mosaics n Dome of Parthenon In Theatres n Sewer systems 0 Roman Law o Development and codi cation of law creation of judicial system of fair and just ideas o Early Roman Republic Law of the 12 Tables dealt with simple matters marked rst step towards creating a uniform law code Accumulation of more and more law codes over time Augustus demands justicebody of law Legal precedent becomes crucial Civil law Written and customary law applied to Roman citizens o Law of the peoples Law applied to all people of Rome regardless of Roman citizenship or nationality Ownership of property sales etc Supplemented civil law o Natural Law Conception of the universe that there is a rational law among human beings All men in nature are entitled to basic rights o Development and codi cation of law is one of Rome s greatest accomplishments Pays very important role in centuries to come 0 Crisis of the 3rd Century 235284 CE o PaxRomana comes to end Last emperors son not t to rule and is killed o Military directly involved in imperial politics dangerous mix o Period of instability Rome hadn t been used to for a long time o Series of 26 different emperors between 235284 Ambitious military leaders who tried to use position in military for power in politics a Vicious cycle 0 Economic crisis due to interrupted agriculture taxation problems external threats from Germanic peoples and Persian 0 Certain parts of empire form independent states for some time o Eventually is overcomeVery different Rome emerges TAKE AWAY POINTS Territorial expansion sets in motion fundamental changes to society culture and politics of early Roman Republic Roman Empire attains unparalleled success in imperial administration and assimilation of subject peoples GrecoRoman civilization spread to new areas esp northwestern Europe continues general westward shift of Western civilization s center of gravity Roman Empire creates structure that allows for rise and spread of Christianity
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