Ch 3 Book Notes
Ch 3 Book Notes ANTHROP 2202H
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 2202H at Ohio State University taught by Lexine Trask in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
Reviews for Ch 3 Book Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/15/15
Ch 3 Doing Anthropology Margaret Mead most famous anthropologist who ever lived Emile Durkeim one of the founders of sociology and anthropology anthropologists relied on ethnographic methods of data collection 0 closely observe record and engage in the daily life of another culture participant observation a characteristic ethnographic technique taking part in the events one is observing describing and analyzing Important differences between sociology and anthropology o sociology s traditional focus on studying the industrial West using quantitative methods 0 anthropology s traditional focus on nonindustrial societies using ethnographic techniques during fieldwork process of becoming an anthropologist requires field experience in another society ethnography emerged as a research strategy ethnographers move from setting to setting place to place and subject to subject to discover the totality and interconnectedness of social life of a given society Field techniques of an ethnographer 0 direct firsthand observation of behavior 0 conversation with varying degrees of formality daily chitchat to prolonged interviews genealogical method 0 detailed work with key consultants or informants about particular areas of community life 0 in depth interviewing leading to collection of life histories o discovery of local beliefs and perceptions which can be compared with observation and conclusions 0 problem oriented research of many sorts o longitudinal research long term study of an area 0 team research 0 multisided research that studies the various sites and systems in which people participate using ethnographers stay a little more than a year in the field many record their impressions in a personal diary which is different from field notes initial impressions are valuable because most societies don t recognize the small basic idiosyncrasies of daily life which eventually the ethnographer also becomes accustomed to strive to establish rapport a good friendly working relationship based on personal contact with hosts most ethnographers become deeply engrained in the society and culture forming personal relationships with the subjects and becoming a member of their society several stages in learning a field language 0 naming phase asking for name after name of the objects around us later pose more complex questions and understand replies begin to understand simple conversation eventually able to comprehend rapid fire public discussions and group conversations ethnographic survey that includes interview schedule results provide a census and basic information interview schedule ethnographic toll for structuring a formal interview a prepared form guides interviews with households or individuals being compared systematically this contrasts with a questionnaire because the researcher has personal contact and records people s answers from survey can determine quantifiable data interview schedule directs the research but does not confine it genealogical method procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship descent and marriage using diagrams and symbols need it to understand current social relations and to reconstruct history in many nonindustrial societies kin links are basic to social life key cultural consultants an expert on a particular aspect of local life who helps the ethnographer understand that aspect 0 also called key informants life history of a cultural consultant provides a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture reveal specificities of certain people in the society usually record many life histories one goal is to discover local views beliefs and perceptions which may be compared with ethnographer s own observations and conclusions emic the research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance etic the research strategy that emphasizes the observer s rather than the natives explanations categories and criteria of significance example illness is caused by spirits ancestors or witches but actually are caused by germs salvage ethnography belief that the ethnographer s job is to study and record cultural diversity threatened by Westernization ethnographic realism present an accurate objective scientific account of a different way of life written by someone who knew it firsthand interpretive anthropology considered the task of describing and interpreting that which is meaningful to natives reflexive ethnography ethnographer puts his or her personal feelings and reactions to the field situation right in the text 0 dialogic experimental writing strategies ethnographic present the period before Westernization when the true native culture flourished 0 rather unrealistic construct OOO contemporary ethnographers recognize that cultures change and an ethnographic account applies to a particular moment in time impossible to study everything so most ethnographers research a certain interest or topic longitudinal research longterm study of a community society culture or other unit usually based on repeated visits 0 often team research approaches that enhance traditional ethnography include study of government and archival documents longitudinal research multisided research and team research survey researchcharacteristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists which studies society through sampling statistical analysis and the impersonal data collection sample a smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population variables attributes that differ from one person or case to the next complex societies nations large and populous with social stratification and central governments informed consent an agreement sought by ethnographers from community members to take part in research different ethical codes and value systems depending on nation or population must be sensitive to culture and aware of procedures and standards in host country appropriate for anthropologists going into the field to 0 include host country colleagues in their research planning 0 establish truly collaborative relationships with those colleagues and their institutions before during and after field work 0 include host country colleagues in dissemination including publication of the research results 0 ensure that something is given back to the host country colleagues American Anthropological Association has a Code of Ethics 0 recognizes four major constituents the scholarly field the people being studied or related to the study other species and the environment scholars worry that governments with use anthropological knowledge for goals that are ethically problematic Pentagon s Human Terrain System placed anthropologists and other scientists in military teams in Iraq to collect data on the culture and people there for military use 0 AAA disapproved of this program and deemed it in violation with the Code of Ethics 0 may be impossible for anthropologists in war zones to identify themselves as non military personnel 0 responsibility to their units may conflict with obligations to local people including putting them in harms way 0 in active war zone difficult for people to give informed consent without feeling coerced and therefore voluntary informed consent is compromised information provided to military could help target people therefore breaking the code to do no harm identification of anthropologists with US military may endanger research and even the personal safety of other anthropologists and consultants around the world
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'