Week 2 Herpetology Notes
Week 2 Herpetology Notes zol 384
Popular in Biology amphibians/reptiles
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melina Canzano on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to zol 384 at Michigan State University taught by J. Harding in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Biology amphibians/reptiles in Animal Science and Zoology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
HERPETOLOGY WEEK 2 NOTES 9815 91015 D K P C O F G S Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Gymnophiona 75 are viviparous live young The oviparous species brood their eggs Higher density in tropical areas and South America 3 Families 1 Rhinatrematidae 2 Caecilidae 3 Ichthyophiidae Order Caudata o 9 Familes 8 found in N America 1 Amphiumidae Proteidae Sirenidae Salamandridae Amnystoamtidae Dicamptodontidae Cryptobranchidae Plethodontidae 9 Hynobiidae not found in N America 90gt masses Caudata Urodela Most abundant in temperate zones peak diversity in USA one family found in neotropics All salamanders are carnivorous feeding mainly on terrestrial or aquatic invertebrates Amphiumidae Congo Eels 3 species Largely aquatic Restricted to southeastern North America Tiny legs incomplete metamorphosis Proteidae Mudpuppies Found mainly in North America and Europe 2 Genera 6 species Fully aquatic and neotenic retain gills as adults Sirenidae The Sirens 3 Species fully aquatic Found in eastern North America Lidless eyes no hind legs retain tiny front legs neotenic retain external gills as adult Family Salamandridae Newts and Fire Salamanders Typically rough skinned and secrete toxins through skin tetrodotoxins 21 genera 107 species Eft stagetransition between larval and adult stage o European Fire Salamander Very toxic species can shoot poison from skin glands o Pleurodeles Waltl Newt from North Africa and Spain that can stick its sharp ribs through its skin and poison glands to stab an attacking predator Ambystomatidae Mole Salamanders o Ambystoma Maculatum only in North America 1 genus 32 species chunky burrowers with typical aquatic and larval eggs egg mass has gelatinous layers o Ambystoma J effersonianum Laterale Complex A complicated group of species that form a complex of mostly female polyploid hybrids in eastern North America Includes A laterale A je ersonianum A tigrinum A texanum A opacum Most breed in vernal ponds in the spring except A opacum breeds in fall in wet woodlands Considered endangered in Michigan Dicamptodontidae Paci c Salamanders 1 genus 4 species Related to Ambystomatidae Found in pacific northwest of North America Some species are neotenic Cryptobranchidae Giant Salamanders Found in eastern US Japan and China 3 species Stream dwelling attened body and head Can reach 60 years of age but threatened by human consumption Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Largest family of caudates 443 species in 27 genera Mostly in USA but found all over No longs respire through skin Both aquatic and terrestrial some have aquatic eggs and larva but direct development on land is common Some are neotenic Many are small and elongate and remain in most places underground or in leaf litter Considerable importance in nutrient cycling in woodland ecosystems Anura Salientia Frogs and Toads Tail less hind legs specialized for jumping Mostly found in tropics and neotropics Entirely carnivorous as adults but aquatic larvae can eat anything Most species inhabit moist habitats but some adapt to more arid climates Often conspicuous and abundant Play a dominant role in nutrient cycling and food chain Ascaphidae Tailed Frogs Found in pacific northwest of US Tail is intromittent organ internal fertilization required in turbulent stream habitats Tadpoles have sucking oral discs to help cling to rocks Most have aquatic eggs and larvae but much variation Over 6400 species Alytidae Disktongued frogs Eurasian 4 genera 18 species Mainly aquatic temperate to subtropical climates Primitive and often divided into additional families Scaphiopodidae Spadefoot Toads A group of 7 species in North America Fossorial adapted to dry desert habitats Spade on hind foot aids in burrowing Fast metamorphosis Pipidae Tongueless Frogs 33 species in neotropics and Africa Highly aquatic back feet webbed front feet with tiny keratinized claws Bufonidae True Toads Worldwide except Australia 590 species 47 genera Have warty skin that often has potent toxins Toothless heavily ossified skulls Most are terrestrial burrowers Leptodactylidae Southern Frogs Large trash basket of 1100 neotropical frog species highly variable in size and habits Range from tiny 1 cm arboreal frogs to large 25 cm aquatic and terrestrial species Some have normal aquatic eggs and larvae others lay terrestrial eggs that hatch into froglets Often divided into many smaller families Ceratophyridae Large voracious predators that grab prey from concealment Hylidae Tree Frogs 947 species mostly worldwide Most arboreal with mucous secretions in toes sticky toe pads and belly for climbing Most with free swimming larvae but much variation Most found in neotropics but Australo Papuan region is second for biodiversity Dendrobatidae PoisonDart Frogs 18 genera 299 species all in Central and South America Small frogs of leaf litter or arboreal Known for highly toxic skin secretions in some but not all Aposematic color in toxic ones but non toxics can show mimicry Phyllobares terribilis is the most toxic species Ranidae Typical Frogs 14 genera 365 species mostly worldwide Includes the largest frogs bull frog is largest American frog but some are small Reptiles non avian Crocodylia Alligators Crocodiles Caimans 9 genera 25 species mostly tropical climates Mostly freshwater habitats but some in brackish and salt water All living genera were present by the Cretaceous period All are oviparous and have some degree of parental care including nest building nest guarding carrying young to water assisting hatching Complex social interactions vocal olfactory and touch communications Heavily exploited by humans many species are threatened Crocodylidae Crocodiles 3 genera 15 species worldwide in tropics Fourth tooth in lower jaw visible with mouth closed Narrower elongated snout for eating fish Alligatoridae Alligators and Caimans Broad snouted with varied diet More vocal than crocodiles Alligator reaches temperate zones others in neotropics Range from 4 6m in size Gavialidae Gharial and False Gharial 2 genera 2 species in rivers in Indian region and Southeast Asia Very narrow snouted weak limbs totally aquatic eat mostly fish Highly endangered Testudines Turtles and Tortoises Unique shell composed of dermal bones incorporating ribs vertebrae and pectoral girdle covered by horny scutes on skin Birdlike beak no teeth Two clades Side necks pleurodires and hidden necks cryptodires gt Pleurodires only in southern hemisphere cryptodires are nearly worldwide in suitable climates All species are oviparous gtExcavate a nest in the ground with hind feet deposit eggs and leave gtMortality rate on eggs is extremely high with few survivors that take many years to mature 3 2o years Live very long lives 25 15o years The preservation of turtle populations depends more on the long term survival of mature adults turtles MUST live long lives in order to compensate for slow maturity rate and low hatching rate of eggs 91015 3 Families of Pleurodiran turtles 1 Chelidae 2 Pelomedusidae 3 Podocnemidae Chelidae Snakenecked Turtles 16 genera 56 species found in South America Australia and New Guinea Fully aquatic in fresh water carnivorous very long necks Pelomedusidae African sidenecks 27 species Inhabit rivers swamps marshes and temporary ponds in sub Saharan Africa and Madagascar Mostly carnivorous Pelomedusa uses ephemeral waters on the savanna and estivates for long periods of time Podocnemidae South American Sidenecks Found in northern South America and 1 species in Madagascar Mostly herbivorous Heavily exploited for meat and eggs some species endangered 11 families of Cryptodirans 1 Chelyridae Snapping Turtles Large headed long tailed freshwater turtles Widespread omnivores 3 genera 6 species in eastern North America Central America and South America 2 Kinosternidae Mud and Musk Turtles Small to large freshwater bottom dwelling carnivorous Plastron often reduced Found in the Americas and Canada 3 Dermatemydidae Central American River Turtle Primitive Gravely endangered by exploitation 4 and 5 Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae Marine Turtles Worldwide tropical and temperate seas Most are carnivores but Chelonia is herbivorous All heavily exploited for meat eggs most populations threatened or endangered 6 Emydidae Pond amp River Turtles 12 genera 52 species Freshwater brackish water and semi terrestrial habitats Most omnivorous some carnivorous or herbivorous These are common basking aquatic and box turtles in North America 7 Geomydidae Asian Pond and River Turtles Ecologically equivalent to Emydidae Found in China and SE Asia Diverse in most fresh and brackish water habitats Almost all are gravely threatened with extinction due to massive exploitation 8 Testudinidae True Tortoises Largely terrestrial dome shelled stout legs un webbed toes Most are herbivorous and lay small clutches of hard shelled eggs Range from 10cm 130cm in size 9 and 10 Trionychidae amp Carettochelyidae Softshelled Turtles Flattened turtles with bony parts of shell reduced Shell is covered with skin lacking scutes Snouts have esh proboscis feet heavily webbed Highly aquatic and carnivorous 13 genera 31 species worldwide Lepidosauria Tuatara Lizards Snakes Rhynocephalia The Tuatara Primitive lizard like lack hemipenes and have a completely diapsid skull Largely nocturnal low metabolism mostly insectivores Mate at 4 year intervals and eggs take 11 16 months to hatch Take 20 years to mature and can live over 50 years Squamata Lizards Snakes Amphisbaenians Highly kinetic and modified diapsid skull paired copulatory organs hemipenes Reduction or loss of limbs is common in all groups Lizards Sauria Over 400 species in 16 families nearly worldwide Internal fertilization viviparous or oviparous Earliest fossils are mid Jurassic but probably evolved much earlier Agamidae Chiseltoothed Lizards 3oo species 53 genera found in Africa Asia Australia Many are attened or compressed robust limbs strong tail large head Range from insectivorous to herbivorous some are omnivores All but one genus are oviparous Chameleonidae Chameleons 6 genera 130 species found in S Europe Africa and Central Asia Color changing ability to aid in camou age or express certain emotions ie aggression territoriality Most are oviparous some bear live young Vertically compressed bodies zygodactylous toes prehensile tails eyes can move independently elongate and sticky tipped tongues Horns can be used in territorial combat Iguanidae Iguanas and kin 55 genera 650 species found in the Americas Madagascar and Fiji Occupy many habitats from deserts to prairies to rain forests Most oviparous Includes several subfamilies Gekkonidae Geckos 97 genera 1050 species found in USA Central and South America S Europe Asia and Australia Most species have expanded toe pads covered below with tiny hairlike projections called setae this allows for climbing on smooth vertical surfaces Many geckos are nocturnal Some use loud vocalizations to communicate Most lay clutches of 1 or 2 eggs Majority of geckos are insectivores some eat fruit Most are found in arid regions Teiidae Racerunners Whiptails and Tegus 9 genera 125 species restricted to the Americas 1ocm to 1m long Most are active diurnal insectivorous lizards Habitats vary from dry desert to tropical rainforest All are oviparous Lacertidae Wall Lizards 25 genera 250 species found in Europe Africa Asia Mostly small to moderate sized Active diurnal rock dwellers Oviparous mostly insectivores Scincidae Skinks 115 genera 1260 species almost worldwide in temperate and tropical climates Smooth scales underlain by osteoderms which give body a hard exterior Great variety of body and limb types many genera show limb reduction or loss About 45 are viviparous Cordylidae Girdletailed Lizards African lizards with heavy overlapping scales arranged in transverse circles often spiny and keeled Some are powerful burrowers others hide in rocks and crevices Most species are viviparous Anguidae Glass and Alligator Lizards Found in Americas Eurasia and China Diurnal in mostly cooler and more temperate climates Most have thick or keeled overlapping scales on body limbs reduced or absent in many genera and species Groove along lower body tail easily moves and breaks and fracture planes in vertebra Helodermatidae Beaded Lizards 1 genus 2 species SW USA to Guatemala Large head bead like scales stout body and limbs Teeth compressed and curved pointed and grooved have venom glands in lower jaws Only venomous lizards and are harmful to humans Adapted to arid climate and spends much time underground Varanidae Monitor Lizards 1 genera 4o species found in Africa Asia Australia Includes Komodo Dragon world s largest lizard Granular scales robust body limbs and tail tongue deeply forked Active carnivorous hunters Wet to very dry habitats Amphisbaenia Worm Lizards 4 families 21 genera 140 species found in Florida Mexico S America West Indies Spain S Africa W Asia Subterranean burrowers highly adapted to digging Nearly all are legless smooth scales arranged in rings wedged skulls reduced eyes
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