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Nonverbal and Verbal Communication

by: Kiersten Notetaker

Nonverbal and Verbal Communication I_BUS 380

Marketplace > Washington State University > International Business > I_BUS 380 > Nonverbal and Verbal Communication
Kiersten Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes help with writing the midterm paper
International Business
Professor Reed
Class Notes
International Business




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiersten Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to I_BUS 380 at Washington State University taught by Professor Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see International Business in International Business at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
1/27/16 - Wednesday Wednesday, January 27, 2016 8:47 PM What isLanguage? • Language is"a symboliccode of communications". • Meaningsattached to any word are totally arbitrary Who Speaks What? Almostall the people on earth can speak at least one of the 10 most common languages: • Japanese 132 million • Malay-Indonesian159 million • Portuguese 191 million • Bengali 211 million • Arabic 246 million • Russian 277 million • Spanish 392 million • Hindi 497 million • English508 million • Mandarin 1 billion+ Language Defined • A set of symbolsthat expresses ideasand allowspeople to think and communicate with each other • What wesay influences what we think, what we feel and what we believe • Language isverbal and written • Communicationcan be verbal or nonverbal Human Language • In human language,a limitednumber of sounds are combined to refer to thousands of different things and experiences. Hardlyany languageuses more than 50 sounds • It is the abilityto recombinesounds to create new meaningsthat makeshuman languagesuch an efficient and effective communication system • Is capable of recreating complex thought patterns and experiences in words • Without human language,human culture would not exist • Playsa crucial rolein the maintenance of human social relationships • Because languageis a creative and open system it is extremelyflexibleand can communicate new ideas and abstract concepts Acquiring Language • A Human Being would speak no languageif she or he were taught none • Critical period of languagedevelopment for humans before the age of six- thereafter learning languageskillsbecome increasinglydifficult The Needto Understand Language • Language isa most apparent cultural distinction and the key to culture. Without it , people find themselveslocked out of all but a culture's perimeter • Spoken languagesdemarcate cultures ○ Switzerland: four separate cultures • Many languagescan exist in a singlecountry, but one usuallyservesas communication vehicle ○ Lingua franca or linklanguage ○ Englishprimary languageof business Language and Culture • Language isan important way to transmit culture: ○ Humans learntheir culture through language ○ Culture istransmitted through language The Influenceof Cultureon Language • The vocabularyof a languagedepicts what is considered important in that culture • Industrializedsocieties have moretechnological terms • Example: 7 words for bamboo in South Indiabut none for snow The Influenceof Languageon Culture • Language influencesperception, categorization and worldview • Language reflects valuesof the group ○ Example:  "individualism"in the US - so many words pertaining to "self"  In Japan, "we" alwayscomes before "I" indicating the "collectivist" approach Language and Culture • As a result of differencesin language, people indifferent cultures will think about, perceive, and behave toward the world differently • Realityitself isalready embeddedin languageand therefore comes preformed • Language determines,enabling and constraining, what is perceivedand attended to in a culture, as well as the upper limitsof knowledge Even Within One Language, Confusion isCommon How many interpretations can you think of for these sentences? • "There's a fork in the road." • "He shot his mouth off." • "My neighborhad her second car stolen." • "The artist painted meon the porch." These Are Actual NewspaperHeadlines • "Soviet ships collide, one dies." • "Obesity study seeks largertest group." • "Safety experts say school bus passengersshould be belted." • "Squad helps dog bite victim." • "Drunk gets nine months in violincase." • "Police begincampaign to run down jaywalkers." Can you Answer these Questions? • Why are they called "stands" when they are made for sitting? • Why are a "wise man" and "wise guy" opposites? • Why is it called "after dark" when it is really"after light?" • Why do "fat chance" and "slim chance" mean the samething? Language & Business • The U.S. isthe only country where businesspeople don’t think it is necessary to learn a foreign language • We must try to speak the local language,BUT ○ Still need translators ○ Useback translations to avoid errors ○ Technical words do not exist in all languages  Usuallyresort to English  Usuallyresort to English ○ Many cultures avoid saying anything disagreeable Avoiding MisunderstandingsAcross Language Barriers • Recognizing the symptoms: blankstares, unnatural stopping points in conversation, feeling of "not connecting" • What to do: explainthe messagein several different ways, use visual aids, slow down, avoid slang and idiomatic expressions, listento the other person's entire message...don'tassume anything, keep good notes, follow up. Practical Difficulties • Orthography - the written representation of spoken language • Accent - the way we sound or pronounce words • Dialect - systematic differences in languagedemonstrated by specific groups of speakers. Often the result of geographic separation and/or foreign origins • Slang - words and usagesnot accepted as proper or dignified • Diacritics - an ancillaryglyphadded to a letter which affect pronunciation and/or meaning English: A Global Language? • You hear it on TV, spoken by politiciansfrom all over the world • Englishis used in the media(the press, advertising, broadcasting, cinema, and popular music), in international travel and international safety. • Hotel receptionists and waiters in a foreign city understand you when you speak English • Englishis one of the official languagesused in the UN and isused in most proceedings of most other major international political gatherings • There has neverbeen a languageso widelyspread or spoken by so manypeople as English The Present status of Englishis primarilythe result of two factors: • The expansionof British colonial power, which peaked towards the end of the 19th century • And the emergenceof the United States as the leading economic power of the 20th century (70% of all English-mothertongue speakersin the world) English • Englishis the medium of a great deal of the world's knowledgeesp. In science and technology A 1980 study of the use of English • 85% of papers in scientific periodicalswere written in English • In 1995, nearly90% of the 1,500 papers listedjournal Linguistics Abstracts werein English • Englishhas become the normal medium of instruction in highereducation for many countries • EnglishLanguage Training (ELT) has become one of the major growth industries around the world • Three quarters of the world's mail is in English AmericanEnglish • The USA has come to be the dominant elementin many domainsso that the future status of Englishmust be bound up to some extent with the future of the U.S. • The USA has been more involvedwith international developmentsin the 20th-century technology than any other nation and isin control of the new industrial (that is electronic) revolution • 80% of the world's electronicallystored information is currently in English What Makes A Global Language? • The Speakers: nothing to do with the number of speakersbut who those speakers are • Power: political, military,economic, technological, and cultural power ○ e.g. Latin during the Roman Empire(when the Roman militarypower declines, Latin remain as the international languagedue to a different sort of power: the ecclesiastical power of Roman Catholicism.) Why Do We Needa Global Language? • Peopleusing different languagesneed a 'linguafranca' to communicate: e.g. a pidgin, a simplified languageadopted by several ethnic groups along the West African coast to do trade • Mandarin Chinese(an indigenous lang.)emergedas 'linguafranca' among the Chinesebecause it is the languageof the most powerful ethnic group • International academic and business communitiesneed a 'linguafranca' to communicate: e.g. to converse over the internet between academic physicists in Germany, Italy, and India, or to discuss a multinational deal involvingthe Japanese, German, and the Saudi Arabian businessmen. • Peoplebecome more mobileboth physicallyand electronically It Is Taken for Granted That • Innovation make the use of the languageas a primaryor solemeans of expression • The first radio station used Englishand no one questioned about it • There was no competition from other languages • If there is a languagethat need protection, the dominant power would take measures to preserve the language • Some countries use Englishas an official languageto avoid the problem of having to choose between the conflicting local languages Unspoken Language • Nonverbal Communication ○ Gestures vary tremendouslyfrom one regionto another ○ Closeddoors convey different meanings ○ Office size has difference meaningsin various cultures ○ Conversational distance small in East ○ Gift givinghas specific etiquette in each culture  Gift or bribe?  QuestionablePayments • Non-verbal Communication/BodyLanguage ○ Sounds (e.g. laughing) ○ Closeness(e.g. 'invading someone's space') ○ Body contact (e.g. shaking hands) ○ Facial Expression (e.g. frown) ○ Eye movements (e.g.winking) ○ Ways of talking (e.g. pauses, stress on words) ○ Posture (e.g. slouching) ○ Appearance (e.g. untidiness) ○ Head movements(e.g. nodding) ○ Hand movements(e.g. waving) How Does the Body Speak? • Like any spoken language,body languagehas words, sentences and punctuation • Each gesture is like a singleword and one word may have several different meanings • According to the social anthropologist, Edward T. Hall,in a normal conversation between two persons, lessthan 35% of the social meaningsisactually transmitted by words • So, at least 65% of it is conveyed through the body (non-verbal channel). Body Language Speaks Volume • Up to 93% of communication is non-verbal • Including tone of voice, eye movement, posture, hand gestures, facial expressions and more • The pressure of body languagecan especiallybe felt in emotional situations • Body languageusuallyprevailsover words • Are you good at reading body language? • Are you good at reading body language? All Behaviorhas CommunicativeValue • Because we "cannot not communicate" • May be intentional, but isoften unconscious • Although we're alwayssending messagesthrough our non-verbal's, these messagesaren't always received • We especiallypay attention to non-verbal'swhen they contradict verbal communication Nonverbal Communication 1.Helpsconvey feelingsand emotional states 2.Elaborates on verbal messages 3.Governs the timing and turn taking between communicators Concerns: • Same nonverbal cue carries different meaningsin different cultures • Different nonverbal cues carry the same meaning in different cultures Nonverbal Cues 1.Facial expressions(smiles,head movements, frowns) 2.Hand gestures (handshakes, the wai, namaste) 3.Posture 4.Touching 5.Scents or smells(perfume) 6.Colorsymbolism 7.Clothing,hairstyles, cosmetics 8.Artifacts (jewelry,fly whisks) 9.Graphic symbols 10.Silence Nonverbal Communication Reflects Cultural Values • Space ○ Americanstend to valuemore personal space than many other cultures ○ Men tend to valuemore personal space than women • Touch (Knapp, 1972) ○ Americans - 2 touches per hour ○ British - 0 touches per hour ○ Parisians - 110 touches per hour ○ Puerto Ricans - 180 touches per hour • Eye-Contact ○ In North-America: frankness, assertiveness,honesty ○ In many Asianand northern-European countries: abrasive& disrespectful ○ In Brazil: more intensiveeye-contact is the norm More Examples: • "When you shake hands, look them straight in the eyeand give'em a good firm grip" • AsiaMid East: gentlehandshake • Mexico/Latin America: palm slip/graspthumb • Nevershake hands with a woman in the MiddleEast and parts of Indiaunless she makes the move • Slightbows are appreciated in Asia • Staring at someoneis intimidating and disrespectful in many areas of the world, especiallyJapan • Presenting business cards? Vocalizations Vocalizations Non-verbal sounds - not words, but convey a meaning Examples: • Laughing • Sighing • Crying • Belching • Inhaling • Excessive groaning • Whining • Yelling Whispering Silence • Silence isalso viewedas a part of non-verbal communication that depending on the situation and usage can influence conversation ina positiveor negativeway • It can communicate contentment, awkwardness, anger, respect, thoughtfulness, empathy • On the one hand silence maycreate tension and uneasiness, whileon the other it may give another person time to collect his thoughts and calm down • Silence can also be an indicator of agreementor disagreement,depending on other non-verbal aspects such as facial expression,body languageor eye contact • In western cultures, silencemarks pauses in a discourse • In oriental/Asiancultures silencesare an integral part of communication. Silencescan indicate: ○ Respect, of agreementor disagreement, ○ Modesty (avoidimproper use of words) The Eyes CommunicateMore Than Any Other Part of the HumanAnatomy • Staring or gazing at others can create pressure and tension in the room. Gangs have fought over the w4gay someone looked at them • Research suggests that individualswho can routinely out gaze another develop a sense of control and power over other not so inclined • Maintained eye contact can show if a person is trustworthy, sincere or caring • Shifty eyes, too much blinkingcan suggest deception • Peoplewith eye movements that are relaxedand comfortable yet attentive to the person they are conversing with are seen as more sincere and honest • Eyebrow muscle draws the eyebrowsdown and toward the center of the face if someone is annoyed. If someone isempathetic and caring during dialoguethe eyebrows will not show the annoyed facial grimace The Smile • There are 50 or so different types of human smiles ○ By analyzing the movementsof over 80 facial muscles involvedinsmiling,researchers can tell when a smileistrue ○ Look for the crinklein the skin at the middle,outside corner of the eyesand if it is not there, the smileis probably fake ○ Authentic smilesare smilesthat "crest" or change rapidly from a small facial movementto a broad open expression


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