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Introduction to Psychology

by: Meaghan

Introduction to Psychology

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Psychlogy > Introduction to Psychology
GPA 3.55

Mark Lange

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About this Document

Material from Dr. Lange's lectures covering chapters 1-7 and 9-13. The chapters are broken down into simple bullet points of important information. Psych vocabulary is also including along with the...
Mark Lange
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Meaghan on Sunday August 10, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 174 views.


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Date Created: 08/10/14
Psychology 0 Literal meaning study of the mind not that today 0 current de nition The scienti c study of behavior and mental processes Goal of Psych 1 accurate observations and descriptions 2 understand behavior 3 predict behavior 4 in uence behavior Roots of Psych O Structuralism focused on uncovering the fundamental mental components of perception consciousness thinking emotions and other kinds of mental states and activities 0 Wilhelm Wundt O lntrospection in which they presented people with a stimulus such as a bright green object or a sentence printed on a card and asked them to describe in their own Words and in as much detail as they could What they were experiencing 0 Functionalism An early approach to psychology that concentrated on What the mind does the functions of mental activity and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments 0 William James O Gestalt psychology A series of principles that describe how We organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes Maj or Perspectives of Psych O neuroscience cognitive behavior humanistic psychodynamic Psychodynamic unconscious thought and feelings expressed in behavior 0 Freud O behavior is motivated by sex and aggression the psychodynamic theorists attribute unconscious motivation to other things self in relation to others homey striving for superiority Adler Behavioral Observing the outer person 0 John B Watson 0 BF Skinner O Focuses on the observable behavior that can be measured objectively and on the environmental factors that in uence behavior Humanistic the unique qualities of the human species 0 Carl Rogers 0 Abraham Maslow O Emphasis is on free will not determinism 0 Individuals naturally strive to grow develop and be in control of their lives and behavior Best the can be self actualization Cognitive thinking Identifying the roots of understanding Focuses on how people think understand and know about the worlds Neuroscience biological blood sweat and fears 0 consider how people and nonhumans function biologically 0 includes study of heredity evolution and behavior neuroscience O hormones and how they interact with your behaviors Sociocultural society in which we live have a big impact on how we behave Expanding Psychology s Frontiers 0 Clinical neuropsychology O unites the areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology 0 focuses on the region of the psychological disorders in biological factors I people can be bom mental disorders 0 Evolutionary psychologywho we are has to do with where we begin a long time ago We are wired to remember bad things so we know in the future not to repeat mistakes 0 considers how behaviors in in uence by inheritance from our ancestors O Behavioral genetics 0 seeks to understand I how we might inherit certain behavior traits Biopsychosocialunderstanding of human behavior 0 the variety of in uence on behavior Psychology using science to understand people 0 a way of thinking critically O a method systematic observations Uses scienti c method to gure out why people are doing what they are doing 1 Hypothesis a predicting 2 Operational de nition translation of a hypothesis into speci c testable procedures Archival Research 0 existing data is used to investigate a hypothesis Examples 0 ensus document 0 college records 0 newspapers Problems data may not be in form that allows the researcher to test hypothesis fully Naturalistic Investigator 0 simply observes some naturally occurring behavior 0 does not make a change in the situation but sample of what people do in their natural habitat Survey Research 0 people are asked a series of question about their behavior thoughts or attitudes Drawback 0 results will be inconsequential of the sample is not representative 0 Survey respondent may not want to admit to holding socially undesirable attitudes The Case Study 0 indepth investigation of a single person or small group O psychological testing Drawback 0 unique individuals make it impossible for generalizations Correlation Research 0 research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine 0 whether they are associated or correlated I correlationtwo things related as one thing changes the other changes 0 positive correlation changes in the same direction 0 negative correlation changes in different direction 0 correlation coef cient Drawback just because two things are correlated does not mean one causes the other correlation doesn t equal causation it gives us a bases to start an experiment Bias we all have experiences and personal ways of thinking and approaching new situations that affects how we see them Hindsight Bias I knew it all along we have a tendency to think that after we got information we would have guessed that or knew it already Components of an experiment see chart from moodle 1 populations subjects experimental group control group dependent variable random selection random assignment independent variable 39gt quot placebomind trick telling someone something will affect them when it doesn t and peoples behavior change 10 result Experimenting with helping good samaritanjewish guy is helped by a guy from samerary even though he isn t jewish took seminary students two groups randomly selected control group experimental group tell the story of the good samaritan the control is to give a talk while the experimental group is thinking about helping on the way both group pass there is a guy laying in the hallway looking sick does thinking about helping people in uence your behavior 29control 53experimental independent variable thinking about the good samaritan and rush that difference is the dependent variable dependent depends of independent experiment group in three group 13 people they said they were going to give the talk plenty of time next group only 10 minutes next group told them they were late second independent variable time then measure who stops dependent variable the more hurry you39re in least likely to stop only 40 stopped to help


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