The 1960s - Week 6 Notes
The 1960s - Week 6 Notes 49-2660-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna King on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 49-2660-01 at Columbia College Chicago taught by J. Menet in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see The 1960s in Social Science at Columbia College Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
The 1960s – 3.1.16 I. The Vietnam War: a. Vietnam & The 60s i. Overshadowed era ii. Historical divide in US iii. Lasting legacy iv. Complicated involvement b. US Perspective i. Fight against Russian & Chinese Communism ii. Stop spread of ideology (Communism) iii. Link with domestic politics iv. Crusading Spirit from WWII c. Vietnamese Perspective i. War on Unification ii. Anti-colonial struggle iii. Civil war iv. Marxist Struggle d. Old WWII & Cold War Propaganda i. Propaganda ii. Story of domination & espionage iii. Black/White Crusade mentality e. Americans held simplistic view of Marxism i. Focused upon form of Communism ii. Little appreciation for subtle difference in Marxism iii. Communism = Socialism iv. History of Anti-Communist activity f. Stalinism was Horrific i. Purges and mass starvations of the 30a 1. Famine: 10-20 million 2. Purges, etc: 4-10 million ii. Harsh treatment of troops & minorities within USSR during WWII iii. Occupation of Eastern Europe Nations during and after WWII iv. Lenin: founder of Communism v. Totalitarian government g. Containment i. George Kennan (American diplomat): Long Telegram 1946 1. It would be a mistake to attack Russia head on 2. USSR will implode on its own 3. US must stop its spread 4. US must set an example of how democracy works ii. Marshall Plan 1. Give European countries money to keep Soviets at bay iii. Truman Doctrine: Gave Greece help for fighting Communists h. Shocks of 1949 i. Soviets explode an A-Bomb ii. China became united under a Communist regime under Moa iii. Domestic American political scandal 1. Red Scare standard 2. China experts were purged from their jobs i. US Plans i. Need to isolate Eastern block & Red China ii. Peacetime Draft iii. Global Bases Strategically placed iv. Japan became Anti-Communist bastion in Asia v. NATO, SEATO, ANZUS vi. Post-War period militarized vii. Containment 1. Overt a. Korean War i. North—Communist ii. South—Not communist iii. North Korean forces drove through and surrounded South Korean & American forces iv. MacArthur drove North Koreans back up north toward Yellow River b. Cuban Missile Crisis 2. Covert a. Iran b. Guatemala j. Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) Perspective i. Imperialism in Pacific ii. Roughly 90% of world controlled by American & European Powers at start of WWI iii. Vietnam controlled by France; “French Indonesia” iv. Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 1. Life intertwined with Modern History of Vietnam 2. Born to a family of scholars and patriots 3. Vowed to free nation from French Colonial rule 4. Ended up in Paris for Treaty of Versailles formation that ended WWI 5. Hope for some Colonial People 6. Woodrow Wilson a. 14 Points Plan b. Self-determination c. Wanted to change map of Europe 7. Met with Woodrow Wilson; disappointed 8. Became a communist while in France 9. Promise of World Revolution 10. Helped to fight Imperialism 11. Studied in Soviet Union 12. Established Indochinese Communist Part in 1930 13. Resisted French Rule 14. WWII a. Started in China b. Japanese Expansion from late 19 th century c. Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945 d. France was occupied; colonies not priority e. Japanese drive into SE Asia led to Pearl Harbor f. 1941: People’s Liberation Army established to fight Japanese g. Helped Americans during war h. Japanese kicked out; Vietnamese communists declared independence i. First Indochina War: 1945-1954 j. France re-establishes power in Vietnam; used Japanese soldiers to keep order k. Boa Dai: Puppet Ruler l. France defeated in 1954 at Battle of Dien Bien Phu v. Geneva Conference: 1954 1. France to leave Vietnam 2. Nation divided north & south at 17 parallel 3. Free election in two years to decide fate in nation 4. US Support agreement ignored and Vietnam divided North & South k. US Decent into Vietnam War i. Cold War Diplomatic bargaining ii. Europe first strategy iii. Re-arm West Germany iv. US agreed to keep Vietnam a colony; supplied arms v. Domino Theory; Containment Philosophy vi. Need markets to support Japan’s economy vii. Korean War Model viii. Neither party wanted to “lose Vietnam” ix. Both political parties needed to be “tough on Communism” x. No More Munichs xi. Ngo Dinh Diem 1. South Vietnamese American ally 2. Fiercely Anti-communist 3. US “installed” as Vietnamese President 4. Corruption 5. Roman Catholic in primarily Buddhist nation 6. Unmotivated Amry 7. 1960: Declaration of National Liberation Front 8. United North & South under Communism 9. Established Underground Party & Army in South (Viet Cong) 10. Under JFK a. $42 million in ad for Military b. Military Advisors: 16,732 by 1963 c. Green Berets: Guerilla fighting to fight Guerillas 11. Not enough money or aid for Diem regime 12. Could not control countryside 13. Buddhist festivals repressed 14. Puppet pulling strings 15. RVN Generals in charge after JFK assassination 16. LBJ & Escalation a. More attuned to Domestic affairs b. 1964 Election c. Gulf of Tonkin d. Initiated bombing campaign against North Vietnam e. Rolling Thunder f. Land Based air units needed to be protected g. General William Westmoreland constantly asked for more troops h. Announced troop escalation in 1965 i. 1967: Westmoreland vowed the US was winning the war against Viet Cong
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