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CHEM 1030 Week 8 Notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

CHEM 1030 Week 8 Notes CHEM 1030

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover what we went over in class on the eighth week of school. It includes diagrams.
Fundamentals Chemistry I
Dr. Streit
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 at a university taught by Dr. Streit in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
1 CHEM 1030 Week 8 Notes Hydrates A. A compound that has a specific number of water molecules within its solid structure B. For example, in its normal state, copper(II) sulfate has five water molecules associated with it C. Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate —> CuSO4 x 2H2O D. When the water molecules are driven off by heating, the resulting compound, Cu(SO)4 is sometimes called anhydrous copper(II) sulfate E. Anhydrous means the compound no longer has water molecules associated with it F. Cu(SO)4 is white but Cu(SO)4 x 5H2O is blue Molecular and Formula Mass A. The molecular mass is the mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an individual molecule B. To calculate the molecular mass, multiply the atomic mass for each element in a molecule by the number of atoms of that element and total the masses C. Molecular mass of H2O = 2(atomic mass of H) + atomic mass of 0 D. Although the ionic compound does not have a molecular mass, we can use its empirical formula to calculate its formula mass E. Look at Worked Examples 5.12 Percent Composition of Compounds A. A list of the percent by mass of each element in a compound is known as the compounds percent composition by mass B. Percent mass of an element = (n x atomic mass of element) / (molecular or formula mass of compound) x 100% C. We could have also used the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide (HO) for the calculation D. In this case, we could have used the empirical formula mass the mass in amu of one o the E. Worked Example 5.13 2 Molar mass (M ) A. In a substance, the molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of the substance B. The molar mass of an element is numerically equal to its atomic mass 1. 1 mol C = 12.01 g 2. 1 C atom = 12.01 amu C. The molar mass of a compound us the sum of the molar masses of the elements it contains 1. 1 mol H2O = 2 x 1.008 g + 16g = 18.02 g 2. 1 mol NaCl = 22.99 g + 35.45g = 58.44g Worked example 5.14 Worked example 5.15 Worked example 5.16 The Octet Rule A. According to the octet rule, atoms will lose, gain, or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration B. Only valence electrons contribute to bonding C. Only two valence electrons participate in the formation of the F2 bond 3 Lewis Structure A. A lewis structure is a representation of covalent bonding B. Shared electron pairs are shown either as dashes or as pairs of dots C. Lone pairs are shown as pairs of dots on individual atoms D. In a single bond, atoms are held together by one electron pair E. In a double bond, atoms share two pairs of electrons F. In atriple bond, atoms are held together by three electron pairs G. Bond length is defined as the distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms H. Multiple bonds are shorter than single bonds I. For a given pair of atoms, triple is shorter than double which is shorter than single J. We quantify bond strength by measuring the quantity of energy required to break it Electronegativity and Polarity A. There are two extremes in the spectrum of bonding: B. There are two extremes in the spectrum of bonding: 1. Covalent bonds occur between atoms that SHARE electrons 2. Ionic bonds occur between a metal and nonmetal and involve ions C. Bonds that fall between these extremes are polar D. In polar covalent bonds, electrons are shared but not shared equally (the delta is used to denote partial charges on the atoms) E. Pure covalent bonds- neutral atoms held together by EQUALLY shared electrons F.Polar covalent bonds- partially charged atoms held together by UNEQUALLY shared electrons G. Ionic bonds- oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction 4 H. Electron density maps show the distributions of charge I. Typically, electrons spend a lot of time in red and very little time in blue Electronegativity A. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a compound to draw electrons to itself B. There is no sharp distinction between non polar covalent and polar covalent or between polar covalent and ionic C. The following rules help distinguish among them: 1. A bond between atoms whose electronegativities differ by less than 0.5 is generally considered purely covalent or nonpolar 2. A bond between atoms who's electrognegativities differ by the range of 0.5 to 2.0 is generally considered polar covalent D. A bond between atoms whose electronegativities differ by 2.0 or more is generally considered ionic 5 Dipole Movement, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic Character A. Regions where electrons spend little time is typically blue while regions where electrons spend a lot of time is tropically red B. An arrow is used to indicate the direction of electron shift C. A quantitative measure of the polarity of a bond is its dipole movement (mu) D. mu = Q x r (Q is the charge; r is the distance between the charges, and mu is always positive and expressed in debye units denoted by the letter D) E. 1 D = 3.336 × 10 -30coulomb meter.


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