MU 2313 Ch 4
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
MU 2313 Ch 4 The Roman Period I Rome a Central Italy i Founded by Romulus and Remus in 753 BCE according to legend 1 Raised by wolves couldn t agree which hill to build the capital on so they fight Romulus kills Remus and calls the city Rome ii By 509 BCE Etruscans booted off the peninsula 1 Preceded Romans in settling there iii Established Roman republic 1 Led by the Senate s 300 members a Wealthy powerful heads of major families 2 Senates Populusque Romanus SPQR II The Roman Period 750 BCE 200 CE a Strong Military i Little commerceindustry 1 Quality of life in Rome dependent on spoils of war a Livestock grain riches b To keep people happy have to keep conquering ii 270 150 BCE conquers Greece defeats Carthaginians 1 Carthaginians were the primary threat to Rome the Punic Wars b Roman Civil War i Growing gap between rich and poor led to civil war ii Julius Caesar 1 Declares war on the city of Pompeii 2 Elected as leader dictator 3 Assassinated on the floor of the Senate Rome is thrown to turmoil civil war ensues 4 Rome is running out of places to conquer it takes too long for spoils to reach them III Augustus Caesar Octavian a Ruled 31 BCE 14 CE b Ended Civil War i Defeats Marc Anthony becomes champion of the people c Military commander spokesperson for the people d 27 BCE granted absolute power i Wanted people to choose how to be led they made him absolute leader ii Pax Romana 1 quotRoman Peace period of stability 2 Ends when the Roman Army becomes tired of Caesars take over implement a tax increase middle class shrinks IV Roman Concepts a Roman Law i Applied consistently to all citizens ii Apply law based on specifics of case b Stoicism i Idea that reason rules the world kinship c NeoPlatonism i Ideas of Plato individual beauty reflects harmony d Divinities amp Mystery Cults i Gods of Olympus 1 Adopted by Romans give them new names ii Cult of Mithra 1 God of light to worship they would partake in taking bread and wine were blessed by a priest e Classicism f Utilitarianism amp Pragmatism V Roman Art a Bedroom from the villa of P Fannius Synistor c 50 BCE Trampe l oeil i City scene ii quotto trick the eye make the viewer think the room is larger than it really is b Hercules with Juno and Minerva 79 70 BCE Trampe l oeil i Painted paintings on the wall windows ii Two dimensional c Hercules and Telephos 2quot l century BCE p 123 i Preserved in the city of Herculania by lava and ash from a volcanic eruption ii Two dimensional d Augustus in Armor 20 BCE i Roman sculpture borrowed heavily from Greeks ii Many Roman copies of Greek sculptures still exist originals destroyed iii Commission for Augustus celebrate military accomplishment iv Romans have an individual depicted Greeks had nonspecific model e Roman Sarcophagus c 220 CE i Artwork carved in a relief sculpture ii Heavily detailed VI Roman Architecture a Pantheon Rome 118 28 BCE i Heavy Greek concepts ii Post and lentil architecture iii Corinthian columns iv Dome structure v Hole in middle oculus 1 Allows light in but also elements like rain 2 Under dome the center of the floor is the highest point 3 When it rains channels lead water out of the building b Trajan s Column 106 13 CE i Combination of architecture and sculpture ii Trajan was a military leader iii Artwork on the column is a relief sculpture that spirals from the bottom to the top iv Shows the military triumphs of Trajan v Staircase inside column to get to top vi Plaster cast mold of the top section of the column was made and placed in a museum so people could see the entire length of the column c Pont du Gard aqueduct Nimes France i Aqueduct carries water from one place to another ii Features Roman arches a Roman invention iii Arches are an improvement of the Greek post and lentil architecture 1 Post and lentil puts pressure on the center can cause cracks 2 Arch diffuses pressure outward distributes weight d Arch of Titus Roman Forum Rome c 81 CE i Titus most famous for the Siege of Jerusalem ii Example of triumphal arches 1 Commemorate military leaderssuccesses e Triumphal Arc of Orange southeast France 27 BCE 14 CE i Honors the second Augustus ii Engaged columns f Colosseum Rome 70 82 BCE i Example of arch work ii Arches made possible by cement and concrete Roman inventions iii Columns places at the legs of arches 1 Engaged columns a Not structurally necessary iv Used for entertainment purposes 1 Gladiators animal fights blood sport group of Christians against lions 2 Center covered by wood platform and several inches of dirt v Also gathered to hear music g Hydraulos i Used water and pumped air to generate sound ii Water organ iii Banned in Christian churches for a long time due to its association with Rome and the city s killing of their people for sport iv Was so popular that it was printed on coins
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