Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes CHEM 1030-007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Thomson on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030-007 at Auburn University taught by Edward J. Parish in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Chemistry Notes 82115 0 Section 1 The Study of Chemistry 0 The Scienti c Method 0 A set of guidelines that scientist must follow Law 0 When they nd a pattern or trend they may summarize their ndings 0 A concise verbal or mathematical statement of a reliable relationship between phenomena Observation 0 Natural phenomena and measured events if universally consistent can be stated as a law Hypothesis 0 A tentative explanation for their observations Experiment 0 Procedure to test hypothesis measures one variable at a time ModelTheory A unifying principle that explains a body of experimental observations and the laws that are based on them 0 Set of conceptual assumptions that explains data from accumulated experiments predicts related phenomena Further Experiment Tests predictions based on model 0 Section 2 Classi cation of Matter 0 States of Matter Solid Molecules are tightly put together mostly vibrating Liquid 0 The molecules are still tight but have more space to move slightly Gas 0 The molecules are very spaced out and moving at a rapid pace 0 Mixtures Mixture A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its distinct identity 0 Either Homogenous or heterogeneous Homogenous Mixture The composition of the mixture is uniform throughout Heterogeneous Mixture The composition is not uniform Mixing sand with iron lings remain distinct and discernible from each other but are still heterogeneous 0 Section 3 The Properties of Matter 0 Physical Properties A physical Property 0 One that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of a substance A Physical Change 0 One in which the state of matter changes but the identity of the matter does not change 0 Example melting 0 Chemical Properties Chemical Property 0 quotiron rusts when it is exposed to water and airquot describes To observe this property a chemical change or chemical process must occur Chemical Change 0 The original substance no longer exists 0 Extensive and Intensive Properties Extensive Property Depends on the amount of matter 0 Mass is an extensive property 0 More matter means more mass Intensive Property 0 Does not depend on the amount of matter 0 Density and Temperature are intensive properties 0 Section 4 Scienti c Measurement 0 SI base units 0 Mass Is the revised metric system International System of Units Mass 0 Is a measure of the amount of matter in an object or sample Length 0 Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Time 0 Second 5 Electric Current Ampere A Temperature 0 Kelvin K Amount of Substance Mole mol Luminous Intensity Candela cd 1 kg 1000 g 1x 103g 1 amu 16605378 x 103924g 39RHa o 39T Hga o G 0 Mega o M KHo o k Deci o d Cen o c MN 0 rn kao o u o Nano 0 n Hco 0 P o Tennperature Celsius Scale Freezing Point 0 0 BoMng o 100 Keh n The absolute scale 0 Lowest possible temp 0 K K C 27315 F 95 X temp in Celsius 32 0 Section 5 Uncertainty ln Measurement 0 Signi cant Figures Are the meaningful digits in a reported number Guidelines 0 All nonzero numbers are signi cant 0 1112 4 sig gs Zeros between Nonzeros are signi cant 0 305 3sk gs Zeros to the left of the rst nonzero are not signi cant 0 100000001 1 sig gs Zeros to the right of the last nonzero are signi cant 0 1200 4 sig gs Zeros to the right of the last nonzero without a decimal may or may not be signi cant 0 100 May be 1 2 or 3 sig gs 0 1X102 1 sig g 0 10 X 102 2 sig gs 0 100 X 102 3 sig gs 0 Calculations with Measured Numbers In addition and subtraction the answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers 0 10250 0231 102731 Round to 20173 because it can not exceed 50 Multiplication and division the number of sig gs in the nal product or quotient is determined by the original number that has the smallest number of sig gs 0 14 X 8011 112154 0 Round to 11 to make it 2 sig gs like 14 115730588 0037825290964 0 Round to 003783 to make it 4 sig gs like 1157 0 Accuracy and Precision Accuracy 0 Tells us how close a measurement is to the true value 0 Precision o Tells us how close a series of replicate measurements are to one another
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