New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture Notes for Week 1 and 2

by: HannahhWardd

Lecture Notes for Week 1 and 2 BIO 202-001

GPA 3.0
Dr. Scharf

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are Bio's lecture notes for Week 1 and 2. Week 3 will be posted soon as well!
Dr. Scharf
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biodiversity

Popular in Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by HannahhWardd on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 202-001 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Scharf in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


Reviews for Lecture Notes for Week 1 and 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/15
Biology Lecture Notes Week 1 and 2 Zoology Study of animal life Animals are Eukaryotes Group includes plants and fungi Cells contain membraneenclosed nuclei Nutrition comes from other organisms Animals lack photosynthesis cell walls absorptive abilities of fungi Many animals must capture food Origin of Life Earliest life about 4 billion years ago Variety of cyanobacteria prokaryotes arose about 3 billion years ago Dominated oceans for 12 billion years producing atmospheric oxygen First eukaryotes appear about 15 billion years ago Animals rst appear in the early cambrian nearly 600 million years ago Cambrian Explosion many phyla within a short period of time Animal Complexity and Body Plans 35 different phyla of multicellular animals About 100 phyla generated during Cambrian Explosion Animal body plans wellde ned and established early in evolutionary history Common architecture is shared Organization Unicellular Organisms Protozoa singlecelled organisms Not classi ed as animals but animallike High intracellular organization to perform basic functions of life Multicellular Organisms Metazoa multicelled organisms true animals Cells organized into larger units individual cells cannot survive alone GradesLevels of Organization Unicellular protozoans 1 Protoplasmic All functions occur Within a cell Multicellular Metazoans 2 Cellular Group of cells with different functions 3 Tissue Aggregation of similar cells into layers 4 Organ Organization of tissues into organs 5 System Organs working together to perform function Body Plans 0 Number of animal body plans limited Basic Characteristics that have Evolved O Multicellular organization Symmetry Body Cavity True Coelom Segmentation O Cephalization 1st Major Variation in Body Plan 0 Sponges contain no germ layers or organs 0 All other animals possess true tissues 2nd Major Variation in Body Plan 0 Cnidaria and ctenophora demonstrate radial symmetry 0 All other animals demonstrate bilateral symmetry Animal Symmetry 0 Correspondence in sizeshape on two sides of a plane 1 Radial Cnidarians ctenophores some sponges and sea urchins Usually sessile free oating animals Can interact with environment from all sides 2 Bilateral Maj or evolutionary advance Well suited for forward movement Example Radial Jellyfish Asymmetry Sponge Bilateral Dog 3rd Major Variation in Body Plan 0 Grouped by type of body cavity or coelom l Acoelomates No body cavity 2 Pseudocoelomates body cavity but not a true coelom 3 Eucoelomates true coelom Why is the evolutionary of a body cavity important O TubeWithin a tube allows greater exibility 0 Space for organs 0 Exposes more cells to surface exchange What are the differences 1 Acoelomates no body cavity space filled with parenchyma 2 Pseudocoelomates have body cavity but not a true coelom since not derived from mesoderm 3 Eucoelomate body cavity derived from mesoderm Two Main Types of Cell Cleavage 1 Radial Sea Star 2 Spiral Nemertean Worm Body Plans 1 Deuterostome 2nd mouth Animals Radial Cleavage Blastopore becomes anus Echinoderms hemichordates and chordates All are true eucoelomates 2 Protostome 1st mouth Animals Spiral cleavage Blastopore becomes mouth Includes acoelomatespseudocoelomates and eucoelomates Two Major Subgroups 1 Ecdysozoa 2 Lophotrochozoa Phylogeny and Classification 0 Over 15 million species of animals classified to date 0 Need a formal system for naming and classification taxonomy 0 Reconstruction of phylogeny evolutionary history or group of taxon o More recent common ancestor more closely related they are Remember Major goal is to reconstruct phylogeny 0 Tools Study of characteristics variable states 0 Homology Characters derived from a common ancestor o Homoplasy Similar features same function arises on different lineages NO COMMON ANCESTRY Results from convergent evolution 0 Cladistics Organization into groups or clades based on shared derived character states Derived Apomorphic Ancestral Plesiomorphic Synapomorphy Shared derived character state Symplesiomorphy Shared ancestral character state Outgroup Comparison Study of character state in closely related animals outside group of interest Classification System Current scheme based on work of Linnaeus 17 00 s Developed preevolution but basic principles still used Hierarchical system of taxonomic ranks Seven ranks are mandatory Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus and Species Use many additional ranks Binomial Nomenclature 1 2 3 Latinized name composed of two words First word is genus name capitalized Always a noun Second word is species name not capitalized Adjective Traditionally only two kingdoms plant and animal 1969 Whittaker proposes 5 kingdom Monera Protista Fungi absorb food Plants photosynthesis Animals ingest food 1990 Woese et al recognizes 3 domains above kingdom level Eucarya Bacteria Archea Simple Animals Metazoa Multicellular animals Simple Animals Sponges Phylum Porifera Sponges Loose aggregation of cells Many pores and canals for lter feeding Skeleton of spicules Sessile Mostly marine and all aquatic Large range in size and color Roughly 5000 species Sponge Form and Function Pores called m in ow Few large Oscula out ow Canal system Interior lined with collar cells choanocytes Collar cells drive water current with agellum and capture food 0 Spicule skeleton prevents collapse Sponge Canal Systems 3 types 1 Asconoid 0 Simple mostly small tubeshaped O Out ow through one large cavity 0 Collar cells in spongocoel 2 Syconoid 0 Similar to Asconoid but more complex body wall 0 Collar cells in radial canals rather than spongocoel 0 Water passes through prosopyles and apopyles 3 Leuconoid 0 Most complex promotes large size 0 Flagellated chambers and multiple oscula for outlet Choanocyte Cells 0 Flagellum beats to create water current 0 Microvilli then capture food particles and begin phagocytosis Sponge Skeletal Structure 1 Spongin Type of collagen Many forms spicules bers laments o O 2 Siliceous Spicules 0 Many structural variations shapes 3 Calcareous Spicules Possess 123 or 4 rays 4 Combination of spieulesspongin Sponge Physiology and Reproduction Physiology 0 Completely dependent upon water ltration 0 Feed on detritus plankton bacteria 0 Intracellular digestion respiration and excretion by cell diffusion Reproduction 0 Both asexual and sexual 0 Asexual by bud formation 0 Sexual Many sponges are hermaphroditic having both male and female seX cells monoecious 0 Ability to repair injuries and regenerate lost parts 3 Classes of Sponges 1 Class Calcarea Calcium carbonate spicules straight 3 rays All types of canal systems Small marine shallow water Class Hexactinellida SiXrayed siliceous spicules Deep sea Class Demospongiae 95 of all liVing sponges COMOON Siliceous spicules not 6rayed or spongin Both spongesstore Cnidarians O Radially symmetric animals General Features 0 Two phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora 0 Radial Symmetry 0 Tissue level or organization 0 2 well de ned germ layers ectoderm and endoderm O Gastrovascular caVity Phylum Cnidaria 0 Nearly 10000 species 0 Most in shallow warm marine habitats 0 Very important ecologically 0 Two main body types dimorphism Polyp sessile form Medusa Free oating form Function in Cnidaria Acquisition of food stinging organelles o Enclosed in cells 0 Thread contains toxic barbs Stimuli for discharge 0 Most have modi ed ciliumcnidocil 0 Some have mechanoreceptor cells 0 Very abundant on tentacles 0 After ring cell is absorbed and another produced Cnidaria Taxa Class Hydrozoa Most marine and colonial Typically include polyps and medusa Freshwater hydra most studied Only polyp stage BasalPedal disc to attach Feeds with nematocysts Colonial hydroid groups are more common Medusa stage present hydromedusa morphology distinct Typical colony organized as branching stalk of polyps Asexually produce polyp and medusa buds then medusae swim off to reproduce sexually First appearance of sense organs Class Scyphozoa True jelly sh mostly oating No velum or shelf on bell Manubrium develops into 4 arms Pouches in gastrovascular cavity contain nematocyst lined laments Dioecious with some internal fertilization Class Cubozoa Box jellies with bells Almost square Tentacles found at comers Base of tentacles forms pedalium Bell edge not scalloped but inner edge forms velarium Fast swimmers Can produce fatal stings Class Anthozoa All polyps m medusa stage Largest class 6000 species 3 subclasses 2 primary Hexacorallia anemones hard corals Octocorallia soft corals Mouth leads to pharynx Gastrovascular cavity is divided by ptalongitudinal mesenteries Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies 150 species Rows of comblike plates for locomotion Nonematocysts but have adhesive colloblast Bioluminescent photophores o No dimorphism monoecious 0 Anal canals for waste removal 2 openings


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.