FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 notes
FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 notes FOS 2001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 – FATS PART 1: Introduction To The Fat Nutrient Types of fats o 3 types of lipids (fats) in the human body: Triglycerides – most common; consists of the backbone molecule glycerol and three individual fatty acids; primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen Phospholipids – primarily in cell membranes; have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail; important because of their affinity to water inside the plasm and fluids that surround the cell Sterols – have four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen; best known is cholesterol (which is essential for making steroid hormones) Properties of fats o Saturated fats – a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms; predominantly in animal tissue and solid at room temperature o Monounsaturated fats – not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap where hydrogen atoms are missing (one double bond/area of unsaturation); may be solid or liquid at room temperature o Polyunsaturated fats – have two or more areas of unsaturation/double bonds; mostly liquid and the basis of many vegetable oils Hydrogenating Fats o Stability of fats is based on saturation levels o Saturated fats = most stable o Hydrogenation – process to stabilize fats of change properties Increases shelf life and prevents it from becoming rancid; can improve texture Trans Fats o Ex/ Crisco and margarine o One concern about the hydrogenation process is the formation of trans fat Trans fats are of increasing interest Consequences associated with health risks like cancer and heart disease Essential Fatty Acids o Must come from diet Humans cannot make doublebond systems o Starter materials for longerchain fats that provide health benefits o Lack of essential fatty acids in diet – result in severe dermatitis (inflammation of skin) PART 2: Sources of Fats in Our Diets Functions of Fats o Satisfies our energy requirements 1 gram of fat = 9 calories o Contributes to sensory experience of eating food Adds to taste and palatability of food o Act as protecting agent to absorb shock Fat in tissue that helps absorb and dissipate shock, protects calls and cell membranes Helps maintain cell integrity Fats in our Bodies st o 1 group of fats found in our body = lipoproteins Four types of lipoproteins Chylomicron – delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via lymphatic system; high in triglyceride VLDL – carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to other cells LDL – carries cholesterol to the cells/LDL receptors enable clearing of cholesterol from the circulatory system HDL – carries fats from cells back to the liver for elimination/recycling Lecithin, Adipose Tissue, and Cellulite o Lecithin – attracts water and lipids and contributes to keeping the cell membranes healthy o Adipose Tissue – used primarily for fat storage o Cellulite – is hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body PART 3: Diseases Associated With The Fat Nutrient Factors for heart disease that you can control o Have a regular exercise program o Maintain healthy weight o Quit smoking o Keep HDL Cholesterol high o Keep LDL cholesterol low o Prevent/manage diabetes o Lower high blood pressure Reducing High Blood Pressure o Major risk for development of heart disease o Most effective means to reduce high blood pressure: weight loss and sodium restriction The Prudent Diet o Diligence is required to maintain optimal health and wellbeing o Limit/monitor the amount of high cholesterol food like eggs and shrimp KEY TERMS FOR LESSON 9: Alphalinolenic acid A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega3 fatty acid family Bile A secretion that emulsifies fat into smaller globules, which allows enzymes to break the fat down Chylomicron A type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph system into the blood Diglyceride A glycerol with only two attached fatty acids Emulsifier The polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot make, so they must be obtained from foods Fatty acid The most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids Glycerol The threecarbon backbone of a triglyceride Linoleic acid A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega6 fatty acid family. Lipid A category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble in water Lipoproteins Capsuleshaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through the lymph and blood Lymph Watery fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the blood Micelles Small transport carriers in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to be absorbed Monoglyceride – a glycerol with only one attached fatty acid Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) A fatty acid that has one double bond Phospholipids Lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphoruscontaining group attached to a glycerol backbone Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) A fatty acid with two or more double bonds Saturated fatty acid A fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen Sterol A lipid that contains four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen Triglyceride Three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone, also known as fat Unsaturated fatty acid A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons
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