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FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 notes

by: Haley Kairab

FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 notes FOS 2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Nutrition and Food Sciences > FOS 2001 > FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 notes
Haley Kairab

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These notes cover everything from Module 3 Lesson 9.
Man's Food
Dr. Agata Kowalewska
Class Notes
Science, Man's Food, nutrition
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
FOS2001 Module 3 Lesson 9 – FATS PART 1: Introduction To The Fat Nutrient  Types of fats o 3 types of lipids (fats) in the human body:  Triglycerides – most common; consists of the backbone molecule glycerol and  three individual fatty acids; primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen  Phospholipids – primarily in cell membranes; have a hydrophilic head and a  hydrophobic tail; important because of their affinity to water inside the plasm and fluids that surround the cell  Sterols – have four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen; best known is  cholesterol (which is essential for making steroid hormones)  Properties of fats  o Saturated fats – a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms;  predominantly in animal tissue and solid at room temperature o Monounsaturated fats – not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap where hydrogen  atoms are missing (one double bond/area of unsaturation); may be solid or liquid at room  temperature  o Polyunsaturated fats – have two or more areas of unsaturation/double bonds; mostly  liquid and the basis of many vegetable oils  Hydrogenating Fats o Stability of fats is based on saturation levels o Saturated fats = most stable o Hydrogenation – process to stabilize fats of change properties  Increases shelf life and prevents it from becoming rancid; can improve texture  Trans Fats o Ex/ Crisco and margarine  o One concern about the hydrogenation process is the formation of trans fat  Trans fats are of increasing interest  Consequences associated with health risks like cancer and heart disease  Essential Fatty Acids o Must come from diet  Humans cannot make double­bond systems o Starter materials for longer­chain fats that provide health benefits o Lack of essential fatty acids in diet – result in severe dermatitis (inflammation of skin) PART 2: Sources of Fats in Our Diets  Functions of Fats o Satisfies our energy requirements  1 gram of fat = 9 calories o Contributes to sensory experience of eating food   Adds to taste and palatability of food o Act as protecting agent to absorb shock  Fat in tissue that helps absorb and dissipate shock, protects calls and cell  membranes  Helps maintain cell integrity  Fats in our Bodies st o 1  group of fats found in our body = lipoproteins   Four types of lipoproteins   Chylomicron – delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via lymphatic system;  high in triglyceride   VLDL – carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to other cells   LDL – carries cholesterol to the cells/LDL receptors enable clearing of  cholesterol from the circulatory system  HDL – carries fats from cells back to the liver for elimination/recycling   Lecithin, Adipose Tissue, and Cellulite o Lecithin – attracts water and lipids and contributes to keeping the cell membranes healthy o Adipose Tissue – used primarily for fat storage o Cellulite – is hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body PART 3: Diseases Associated With The Fat Nutrient   Factors for heart disease that you can control o Have a regular exercise program o Maintain healthy weight o Quit smoking o Keep HDL Cholesterol high  o Keep LDL cholesterol low o Prevent/manage diabetes o Lower high blood pressure   Reducing High Blood Pressure o Major risk for development of heart disease o Most effective means to reduce high blood pressure: weight loss and sodium restriction  The Prudent Diet o Diligence is required to maintain optimal health and well­being o Limit/monitor the amount of high cholesterol food like eggs and shrimp KEY TERMS FOR LESSON 9:  Alpha­linolenic acid ­ A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega­3 fatty acid  family  Bile ­ A secretion that emulsifies fat into smaller globules, which allows enzymes to break the fat  down  Chylomicron ­ A type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph  system into the blood  Diglyceride ­ A glycerol with only two attached fatty acids  Emulsifier ­ The polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot make, so they must be obtained  from foods  Fatty acid ­ The most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids  Glycerol ­ The three­carbon backbone of a triglyceride  Linoleic acid ­ A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega­6 fatty acid family.  Lipid ­ A category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble in water  Lipoproteins ­ Capsule­shaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through  the lymph and blood  Lymph ­ Watery fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the  blood  Micelles ­ Small transport carriers in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to  be absorbed  Monoglyceride – a glycerol with only one attached fatty acid  Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ­ A fatty acid that has one double bond  Phospholipids ­ Lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphorus­containing group attached to  a glycerol backbone  Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ­ A fatty acid with two or more double bonds  Saturated fatty acid ­ A fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen  Sterol ­ A lipid that contains four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen  Triglyceride ­ Three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone, also known as fat  Unsaturated fatty acid ­ A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons


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