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Anthropology Notes Week of 9/8-9/11

by: Sydney Miller

Anthropology Notes Week of 9/8-9/11 ANTH 161 001

Sydney Miller
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova

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Week from 9/8-9/11. Sorry they're so late!
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 09/15/15
161 Anthropology Notes 98 911 09152015 Cells Chromosome numbers vary by species but humans have 23 pairs Humans o Somatic cells 0 Gametes DNA 0 Each chromo has a code for the production of a protein 0 Complete set of chromosomes all inheritable traits Eg chimps have 2 more chromosomes but share 98 of their DNA with humans Contained organelles in cell s cytoplasm got it from mom Differs from cell to cell not like nDNA Double helix ladderlike structure Ladder is comprised of attatched to 0 Ladder base made up of 4 types nucleic acid amp allow for predictable o Occurs in nucleus amp is part of o production of new 0 production of new 0 Development from zygote to complete organism Chromosome Types nonsex chromosome 0 One of each pair from each parent XY 0 Y chromosome 0 Complete set of chromosomes Programming for Everything 0 Why do we need to know them 0 Production of from a parent cell 0 One DNA followed by 0 Gametes are 12 the number of chromosomes 0 Does in identical cell copies 0 Critical role in 0 Something special happens when copies of the homologous chromosomes are gathered near each other before division there is some resulting in the of the pairs of chromosomes Why is this so cool 0 Genes close together on a chromosome are likely to recombine 0 Great for studying genetics amp passed on for generations 0 Groups of related haplotypes Modern Evolutionary Theory Synthesis Builds upon Evolution de ned as 2 stage process 0 Production amp redistribution of o acting on this variation 0 Inherited differences among individuals caused by evolutionary processes amp genetic change 0 Inherited differencesvariation among individuals that differentially affect their ability to reproduce successfully 0 Evolution works 0 Factors that produce amp redistribute variation Mutations o Carried in introduced in population 0 For evolutionary signi cance must occur in 0 Low rates eg 110000 0 Not all mutations matter to evolution 0 To matter must be heritable 0 Range of effects 0 No change in phenotype 0 Small change 0 Big change Gene Flow Migration o Diffusion of new genetic material from 1 population to another of same species 0 Pollen movement 0 People moving 0 Organisms forming different communities New genes that didn t previously exist in population Makes Reduces the chance of o The less gene ow between 2 populations the more likely that they will evolve into two species decreases with increased geographic distance o EuroAmerican gene frequencies among African Americans via the O in West Africans 100 in Europe Thursday 910 Genetic Drift 0 some individuals may contribute more genes to succeeding generations 0 A rare gene may be passed to a high number of offspring increasing frequency of gene in succeeding generations Over time When a small number of individuals start a new population all descendants are derived from them and may have 39weird allele frequencies compared to populations of origin Colonization war disease famine Rare genes present from parent population can become common Some genes can be removed from gene pool French Canadians Cystic Fibrosis 0 Effects on evolution 0 genetic variation 0 Possible reduced ability of population to evolve in response to new selective pressures o Succeeding generations may be very different from original large population 0 This loss of genetic diversity Population Genetics 0 When geneticists amp biological anthropologists study genetics they focus on 0 Members of a species that have similar genes interbreed amp produce offspring o A group on individual amp their offspring who possess a particular collection of alleles or 0 populations amp their members that are capable breeding with each other amp producing viable fertile offspring o if 2 populations are isolated no interbreeding can occur 0 related to geographical isolation focuses on 0 includes frequencies of alleles genotypes amp phenotypes for an entire population 0 Relative proportion of each allele within a population the number of alleles in a population 0 Relative proportion of each genotype within a population the number of individuals within each genotype divided by the total number of individual in population 0 For some traits can be calculated 0 Proportion of the phenotypic variation that is due to inheritance rather than environment 0 Only heritable traits respond to driving force of 0 Measurement of heritability is complicated by or a single allele having multiple effects 0 Most Genes are the record for evolution over course of a few generations or many Geneticist document genetic change amp understand why it occurred population genetics 0 Some times frequencies don t change state of 0 Le sickle cell gene in West Africa 0 consider one locus o if you could count all alleles in all individuals in a populations 0 of all alleles a certain fraction are 0 then the rest of the alleles are y that fraction is q o results from a in a gene that produces a protein necessary to create colored skinfurfeathers o Albinism is signi ed by allele I 0 Thus an albinobea 0 Normal skin color is Nonalbino could either be 200 people total 98AA 84Aa 18aa frequency of AA 98200 49 normal phenotype frequency Aa 84200 42 normal phenotype frequency aa 18200 09 Albino o 4942181 400 alleles in 200 people 98AA 2 x 98A alleles 196 alleles A 84Aa 1x84A alleles 84 A alleles 18aa0x18 a alleles 0 A alees Total A 280 Frequency of A 280400 7 Frequency of a 17 3 HardyWeinberg Equilibrium o mathematician amp Physician recognized some alleles are in o In frequencies of alleles amp genotypes in an interbreeding population remain the same for genes genotype frequencies reach eves o Alleles A amp a or M amp N or whatever 0 At frequencies of p amp q pq1 o Pfrequency of A o Qfrequency of a 0 Frequency of Genotype AA will be psquared pxp Frequency of Genotype Aa will be 2pq pxq pxq Frequency of Genotype aa will be qsquared qxq Albino Example if p 7 amp q3 Then the predicted genotype frequencies are 0 AA 7squared 49 Aa 2x7x342 Aa3square09 4942091 our example is in equilibrium there is no change in genotype frequency between one generation amp the next 0 Random mating no mutation no migration no selection all are 0 Rarely true If we don t observe HW assumptions than we know 1 assumptions broken Genes passed generation to generation by interbreeding within populations that are members of some species result in genetic changes O interact to produce variation amp distribute genes within amp between populations o increases variation 0 moves variation from population to population 0 moves variation due to random chance events 0 These mechanisms of evolution work with the random variation thess For any locusgene tness is measured by the o The genotype that has the representation in the next generation is the most t genotype Patterns of Natural Selection 0 3 patterns by which natural selection can act on a trait o Favors think of it as going in 1 direction Increase in a hominid brain size through time Ex in babies No know example of humans although possibly 0 With time occurs 0 Industrial Revolution was selecting factor 0 advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in a population Natural Selection in Humans amp the Sickle Cell Gene 0 Normal RBCs cells are smooth round amp doughnutshaped without a whole 0 Life span120 days Sickleshaped cells are sickled o Anemia lower than normal RBC count 0 Lifespan 10 to 20 days 0 Body cant replenish quick enough 39 More common in some populations o Homozygous recessive persons low reproductive success Natural Selection in Humans amp Malaria Natural Selection Leads to Organism cannot Genes good enough to survive amp reproduce are passed on


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