week 2 notes for statistics psych 215
week 2 notes for statistics psych 215 Psych 215
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Bahr on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 215 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Shen Zhang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Week of 090715 Statistics Second Week of NotesNo notes from the rst week just syllabus information Statistics is the empirical nature of science Empirical 0 Based on observationsbased on the 5 senses o if it isn t observable then it s not scienti c o MUST BE BASED ON OBSERVATIONS 0 data is usually collected rst hand but can be second hand Population vs Sample Population 0 group of individuals who share the same characteristics Sample 0 a select few of the population Why use a sample Because it s very dif cult to test an entire population Sampling public opinion is like sampling soup one spoonful can re ect the taste of the whole pot if the soup is wellstirred George Gallup Random Sample 0 a subset of the population 0 everyone in the population has an equal chance to be selected as part of the random sample Experiment 0 a scienti c procedure undertaken to make a discovery test a hypothesis or demonstrate a known fact 0 in order for it to be an eXperiment the eXperimenter must have total control over over the experiment Independent Variable 0 variable the eXperimenter manipulates Dependent Variable 0 variable that changes based on the independent variable 0 is dependent on the independent variable EX When testing if violence in media effects aggression in children the independent variable is the violence in the media and the dependent variable is the aggression level of the children after watching violent programs Random Assignment 0 an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment e g a treatment group versus a control group using randomization such as by a chance procedure e g ipping a coin or a random number generator 0 this creates equivalent groups 0 gets rid of systematic biases that individuals may have QuasiExperiment 0 just like a regular experiment 0 the only difference is at least one independent variable is not manipulated O comparing different populations 0 eX are alcoholics more impulsive than nonalcoholics I can t use random assignment because the people in each group needs to be either all alcoholics or all nonalcoholics Describe vs Inference Descriptive Statistic O a single number to describe data from a sample 0 measurable characteristics of a sample Organize summarize and simplify 0 Provide basic information 0 EX mean mode median 0 more eX standard deviation Inferential Statistic O draw inferences about characteristics of a population based on the sample Two Broad Goals of Inferential Statistics 0 estimate the value of population parameters 0 hypothesis testing Types of Variables O scales of measurement 0 quantitative vs qualitative O discrete vs continuous Scales of Measurement 0 Nominal O categorical data 0 no numbers just category I eX sorting people into different ethnicities O Ordinal 0 data that can be placed in a speci c top down or bottom up order I eX college ranking I racing 1st 2nd 3rd 0 Interval 0 includes characteristics of ordinal data and quali es information with equal intervals I eX Celsius amp Fahrenheit 0 Ratio 0 includes characteristics of interval data I true zero point 0 eX weight height speed Chance Difference 0 equivalent groups will always differ in some unpredictable way 0 this is because we draw from the sample and not the population Chance 0 random 0 beyond what we predict 0 not systematic
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