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HD 205 Cognitive Development Notes (Part 2)

by: Paula Tattoni

HD 205 Cognitive Development Notes (Part 2) HD 205-001

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 205-001 > HD 205 Cognitive Development Notes Part 2
Paula Tattoni

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About this Document

Here is the second part of the notes on Cognitive Development!
HD 205
Blanche C. Komara
Class Notes
HD205, chapter 9, Human Development, preschool, cognitive development
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Tattoni on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see HD 205 in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Chapter 9: Cognitive Development Monday, February 29, 2016 3:04 PM A Information Processing: Memory a Recognition i Easier for young children and adults ii Nearly perfected by age 4 or 5 b Recall i Much poorer than recognition in young children ii Associated with language development iii Hindered by limited working memory, lack of skills at using memory strategies (rehearse, organize) iv Recall is much harder because there is nothing that is going to help them remember B Memory for Everyday Experiences a Episodic Memory: memory of everyday experiences b Scripts: memory of familiar, repeated events i Become more elaborate and spontaneous with age ii Help children interpret and predict everyday experiences iii Assist children in recall, make-believe play, and planning B Autobiographical Memory (One-Time or Special Events) a 2 styles of caregiver-child communication: i Elaborative Style: follows child's lead, asks varied questions, adds info, volunteers own recollections ii Repetitive Style: provides little info, keeps repeating same questions, ignores child's interests b Elaborative style leads to better recall and more organized, detailed personal stories one to two years later B Problem Solving in Early Childhood a Overlapping-Waves Theory: children try a variety of strategies to solve challenging problems; observe which strategies work best, which work less well, and which are ineffective b Gradually select strategies on the basis of accuracy and speed B The Young Child's Theory of Mind a Theory of Mind/Metacognition: coherent set of ideas about mental activities, "thinking about thought" b Milestones in Awareness of Mental Life: i Age 1: babies view people as intentional beings who can share and influence one another's mental states ii Age 2: children display clearer grasp of others' emotions and desires iii Age 3: children realize that thinking is internal, but focus only on desires, not beliefs iv Age 4: children realize that both beliefs and desires determine behavior, and become aware of false beliefs B Factors Contributing to Preschoolers Theory of Mind a Language and Verbal Reasoning About Mental States: left prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role b Executive Function: several aspects of executive function predict false- belief mastery c Make-Believe Play: make-believe play offers a rich context for thinking about the mind d Social Interaction: social experiences promote understanding of the mind B Limitations of a Child's ToM a Unaware that people continue to think when there is no obvious cues that they are thinking b Do not realize when two people are viewing the same object, their thoughts will differ because of variations in knowledge c Believe that all events must be directly observed to be known, they do not understand that mental inferences can be a source of knowledge B Autism and Theory of Mind a Autism Characteristics i Limited ability to engage in nonverbal social behaviors ii Delayed, stereotyped language iii Much less make-believe play than other children iv Narrow, intense interests b Rarely use words such as believe, think, know, feel, pretend c Impaired theory of mind linked to autism may be due to several brain- based deficits B Early Literacy Development a Preschoolers' understanding of written language begins before they learn to read or write b Emergent Literacy: children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experience i Children gradually figure out the symbolic function of print ii Phonological awareness strongly predicts emergent literacy 1 The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language; reflected by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming, and to incorrect pronunciation B Supporting Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood a Provide literacy-rich home and preschool environments b Engage in interactive book reading c Provide outings to libraries, museums, parks, zoos, and other community settings d Point out letter - sound correspondences, play, language - sound games, read rhyming poems and stories e Support children's efforts at writing, especially narrative products f Model literacy activities B Early Childhood Mathematical Reasoning a Mathematical reasoning builds on informal knowledge b Toddlers display beginning grasp of ordinality (order of relationships between quantities) c By age 3.5 to 4, most children grasp cardinality (last number when counting is the total) d An understanding of basic arithmetic makes estimation possible - the ability to generate approximate answers B Individual Differences in Mental Development a Early Childhood Intelligence Tests: i Verbal questions and nonverbal tasks ii Concerns: act with anxiety, unfamiliar adult, seek attention or approval, situational factors, effects of cultural bias b Environmental Factors: i Home environment ii Quality of preschool or kindergarten (child-centered v. academic) iii Value of high-quality early intervention for at-risk preschool iv Exposure to education and entertainment media B Features of a High Quality Home Life for Preschoolers: the HOME Early Childhood Subscales a Availability of toys, games, and reading materials b Regular parent-child conversations c Clean, uncluttered rooms d Parental pride, affection, and warmth e Stimulation of academic behavior f Modeling and encouragement of social maturity g Opportunities for regular outings h Avoidance of physical punishment B Types of Preschool and Kindergarten a Child-Centered Programs: teachers provide activities from which children select; most of the day is devoted to play b Academic Programs: teachers structure children's learning through formal lessons, often using repetitive drills c Montessori Education: child-centered approach places equal emphasis on academic and social development B Early Intervention for At-Risk Preschoolers a Project Head Start i Program currently serves nearly 1 million US families ii Parent involvement is central to its philosophy b Benefits: i Higher IQ and achievement scores in the early school years ii Less special education and grade retention iii More high school graduation, college enrollment B Child-Care a Substandard child care can impair cognitive and social skills and psychological well-being b Good child care enhances language, cognitive and social development, especially for low-SES children c Center-based care is more strongly linked to cognitive gains than home- based gains B Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Early Childhood Programs a Safe, clean, richly equipped physical setting b No more than 18-20 children with 2 teachers c No more than 8-10 children with each teacher d Small-group and individual activities chosen by children e Positive adult-child interactions f Specialized, college-level teacher preparation g Encouragement of parent observation and participation h State licensing and voluntary accreditation (NAEYC, NAFCC) B Educational TV a TV remains dominant in youth media b Time spent watching educational programs (such as Sesame Street) leads to: i Gains in early literacy and math skills ii Academic progress in elementary and high school b Background TV viewing (leaving on all day, during dinner): i Impairs sustained attention ii Decreases quantity and quality of parent-child interaction iii Delays acquisitions of reading skills B Computer Learning a Computers can have rich educational benefits b Computer-learning centers in early childhood classrooms encourage language, literacy, and arithmetic skills c Simplified computer languages introduce programming skills and promote problem solving and metacognition d Most of young children's time on computers and other screen media is spent on entertainment, especially game playing B Vocabulary Development in Early Childhood a Nouns, verbs, modifiers b Fast-Mapping: connecting new words with underlying concepts after only a brief encounter c Mutual Exclusivity Bias: assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories d Syntax Bootstrapping: discovering word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax B Grammar Development in Early Childhood a Overregularization: applying rules to words that are exceptions b Semantic Bootstrapping: relying on word meanings to figure out grammatical rules i Persisting controversy over the existence of a universal, built-in language-processing device


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